2. Driving Forces for the Organizational Life Cycle Stages
3. Coaching and Drivers for the Sustainable Development of Organizations
4. Materials and Methods
4.1. Design of Expert Opinion Questionnaire
- evaluation of the level of priority of the forms and types of coaching in the context of organizational life cycle;
- expert self-evaluation.
4.2. Selection of Experts and Evaluation of the Level of Competence
- competence coefficients (k);
- self-confidence evaluation; and,
- documented method.
5. Results and Discussion
Conflicts of Interest
|High (1)||Medium (0.5)||Low (0)|
|Capacity to Foresee Logical Progression|
|Coaching for Innovation|
|Head of the Organization|
|Other (Please Specify)|
|MCC (Master Certified Coach)|
|PCC (Professional Certified Coach)|
|ACC (Associated Certified Coach)|
|Other (Please Specify)|
|15 Years and More|
- Yun, J.J. How do we conquer the growth limits of capitalism? Schumpeterian dynamics of open innovation. J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2015, 1, 17. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Yun, J.J.; Won, D.; Park, K. Dynamics from open innovation to evolutionary change. J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2016, 2, 7. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chesbrough, H. Open Innovation: A New Paradigm for Understanding Industrial Innovation. In Open Innovation: Researching A New Paradigm, 1st ed.; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 2006; pp. 1–12. [Google Scholar]
- Vanhaverbeke, W.; Chesbrough, H.A. Classification of Open Innovation and Open Business Models. In New Frontiers in Open Innovation, 1st ed.; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 2014; pp. 50–68. [Google Scholar]
- Dobrovolskienė, N.; Tamošiūnienė, R. An index to measure sustainability of a business project in the construction industry: Lithuanian case. Sustainabillity 2016, 8, 14. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- World Commision on Environement and Development. Our Common Future, 1st ed.; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 1987; p. 400. [Google Scholar]
- Robert, K.W.; Parris, T.M.; Leiserowitz, A.A. What is sustainable development? goals, indicators, values, and practice. Environ. Sci. Policy Sustain. Dev. 2005, 47, 8–21. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Linnenluecke, M.K.; Griffiths, A. corporate sustainability and organizational culture. J. World Bus. 2010, 45, 357–366. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dyllick, T.; Hockerts, K. Beyond the business case for corporate sustainability. Bus. Strategy Environ. 2002, 11, 130–141. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Stanciu, A.C.; Constandache, M.; Condrea, E. Concerns about the sustainable performance of firm in the context of quality management systems implementation. Procedia Soc. Behav. Sci. 2014, 131, 340–344. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dobrovolskiene, N.; Tamošiuniene, R. Sustainability-Oriented financial resource allocation in a project portfolio through multi-criteria decision-making. Sustainability 2016, 8, 485. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kocmanová, A.; PavlákováDočekalová, M.; Škapa, S.; Smolíková, L. Measuring corporate sustainability and environmental, social, and corporate governance value added. Sustainability 2016, 8, 945. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dočekalová, M.P.; Kocmanová, A. Comparison of sustainable environmental, social and corporate governance value added models for investors decision making. Sustainability 2018, 10, 649. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Woo, H.R. Exploratory study examining the joint impacts of mentoring and managerial coaching on organizational commitment. Sustainability 2017, 9, 181. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bozer, G.; Sarros, J.C.; Santora, J.C. The role of coachee characteristics in executive coaching for effective sustainability. J. Manag. Dev. 2013, 32, 277–294. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Vidal-Salazar, M.D.; Ferrón-Vílchez, V.; Cordón-Pozo, E. Coaching: An effective practice for business competitiveness. Compet. Rev. 2012, 22, 423–433. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hackman, J.R.; Wageman, R. A Theory of team coaching. Acad. Manag. Rev. 2005, 30, 269–287. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kazanjian, R.K.; Drazin, R. A stage-contingent model of design and growth for technology based new ventures. J. Bus. Ventur. 1990, 5, 137–150. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Miller, D.; Friesen, P.H. A Longitudinal Study of the Corporate Life. Manag. Sci. 1984, 30, 1161–1183. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hanks, S.H. The organization life cycle: Integrating content and process. J. Small Bus. Strategy 1990, 1, 1–12. [Google Scholar]
- Reid, S.E.; Brentani, U. Market Vision and Market Visioning Competence: Impact on Early Performance for radically new, high-tech products. J. Prod. Innov. Manag. 2010, 27, 500–518. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kim, J.; Jung, S. Study on CEO characteristics for management of public art performance centers. J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2015, 1, 5. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lester, D.L.; Parnell, J.A.; Carraher, S. Organizational life cycle: A Five-Stage Empirical Scale. Int. J. Organ. Anal. 2003, 11, 339–354. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Greiner, L. Evolution and revolution as organizations grow—Harvard business review. Harv. Bus. Rev. 1998, 76, 55–68. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
- Scott, M.; Bruce, R. Five Stages of growth in small business. Long Range Plan. 1987, 20, 45–52. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chukhray, A.; Novakivskii, I. Life Cycle Business Modelling. Econtechmod 2015, 4, 17–24. [Google Scholar]
- Ionescu, G.; Negrusa, A. The Study about Organizational Life Cycle Models. Rev. Int. Comp. Manag. 2007, 8, 5–17. [Google Scholar]
- Rutherford, M.W.; Buller, P.F.; McMullen, P.R. Human resource management problems over the life cycle of small to medium-sized firms. Hum. Resour. Manag. 2003, 42, 321–335. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ciemleja, G.; Lace, N. The model of sustainable performing of SMEs in context of company’s life cycle. In Proceedings of the 15th World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Orlando, FL, USA, 19–22 July 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Duobiene, J. Corporate entrepreneurship in organisational life-cycle. Econ. Manag. 2013, 18, 584–595. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Yusr, M.M. Innovation capability and its role in enhancing the relationship between tqm practices and innovation performance. J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2016, 2, 6. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lee, S.H.; Jung, K.; Workman, J.E. Exploring neglected aspects of innovation function: Public motivation and non-pecuniary values. Sci. Technol. Soc. 2016, 21, 435–464. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cox, E.; Bachkirova, T.; Clutterbuck, D. Theoretical traditions and coaching genres. Adv. Dev. Hum. Resour. 2014, 16, 139–160. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Popper, M.; Lipshitz, R. Coaching on leadership. Leadersh. Organ. Dev. J. 1992, 13, 15–18. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Burdett, J.O. Forty things every manager should know about coaching. J. Manag. Dev. 1998, 17, 142–152. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Grant, A.M.; Cavanagh, M.J. Toward a profession of coaching: Sixty-five years of progress and challenges for the Future. Int. J. Evid. Based Coach. Mentor. 2004, 2, 1–16. [Google Scholar]
- Stober, D.R. Making It stick: Coaching as a tool for organizational change. Coach. Int. J. Theory Res. Pract. 2008, 1, 71–80. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Trenner, L. Business coaching for information professionals. Bus. Inf. Rev. 2013, 30, 27–34. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rosha, A.; Lace, N. The scope of coaching in the context of organizational change. J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2016, 2. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rousseau, V.; Aubé, C.; Tremblay, S. Team coaching and innovation in work teams. Leadersh. Organ. Dev. J. 2013, 34, 344–364. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Audet, J.; Couteret, P. Coaching the entrepreneur: features and success factors. J. Small Bus. Enterp. Dev. 2012, 19, 515–531. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Duff, A.J. Performance management coaching: Servant leadership and gender implications. Leadersh. Organ. Dev. J. 2013, 34, 204–221. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Feldman, D.C.; Lankau, M.J. Executive coaching: A review and agenda for future research. J. Manag. 2005, 31, 829–848. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Grant, A.M. The efficacy of executive coaching in times of organisational change. J. Chang. Manag. 2014, 14, 258–280. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Joo, B.K. executive coaching: A conceptual framework from an integrative review of practice and research. Hum. Resour. Dev. Rev. 2005, 4, 462–488. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bozer, G.; Sarros, J.C. Examining the effectiveness of executive coaching on coachees performance in the israeli context. Int. J. Evid. Based Coach. Mentor. 2012, 10, 14–32. [Google Scholar]
- De Meuse, K.P.; Dai, G.; Lee, R.J. Evaluating the effectiveness of executive coaching: Beyond ROI? Coach. Int. J. Theor. Res. Pract. 2009, 2, 117–134. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ratiu, L.; David, O.A.; Baban, A. Developing managerial skills through coaching: Efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral coaching program. J. Ration. Emotive Cogn. Behav. Ther. 2016, 34, 244–266. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Anderson, V. A Trojan horse? The implications of managerial coaching for leadership theory. Hum. Resour. Dev. Int. 2013, 16, 251–266. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Ellinger, A.D.; Ellinger, A.E.; Bachrach, D.G.; Wang, Y.L.; Elmadag Bas, A.B. Organizational investments in social capital, managerial coaching, and employee work-related performance. Manag. Learn. 2011, 42, 67–85. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hollywood, K.G.; Blaaess, D.A.; Santin, C. Holistic mentoring and coaching to sustain organizational change and innovation. Creighton J. Interdiscip. Leadersh. 2016, 2, 32–46. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Benini, A.; Chataigner, P.; Noumri, N.; Parham, N.; Sweeney, J.; Tax, L. Expert Judgment—The Use of Expert Judgment in Humanitarian Analysis—Theory, Methods and Applications. Available online: https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/acaps_expert_judgment_-_full_study_august_2017.pdf (accessed on 27 September 2018).
- Pavlov, A.; Sokolov, B. Methods for Processing Expert Information; GUAP, SPb: Saint Petersburg, Russia, 2005; p. 42. (In Russian) [Google Scholar]
|Life Cycle Stages||Drivers for Organization Sustainable Development|
|Product and service innovations|
|Willingness to understand risk|
|Involvement of lower level management in decision making|
|Capability to deal with almost constant state of change|
|Ability to manage high growth|
|Exploring the feasibility of growth|
|Retaining high performance employees|
|Overcoming bureaucratic obstacles|
|Responsiveness to environmental changes|
|Effective internal communication|
|Innovative high performance|
|Renewal of organizational strategy and structure|
|Development of innovativeness|
|Improve of the information processing mechanisms|
|Increase the tolerance level|
|Birth||Situation. The organization is small in terms of revenues and number of employees.|
Strategy: niche strategy is a determine growth strategy. The strategic aim is to find the gaps in the market and defense these niches by making extensive innovations.
Structure: simple formal organizational structure. Coordination among staff is weak since the internal structure is simple and does not fully exist.
Decision-making: centralized decision-making. The main role in the development of organization belongs to the founder/owner-manager. The owner-manager concentrates the power and makes the key decisions. Decisions may conflict with each other because of the lack of detailed analysis and methodological consideration of alternatives.
Key skills required. Success comes from creativity, flexibility, informality, commitment, and willingness to undertake risk on the part of the founder. The founder must be result-oriented, creative and committed to the business idea, and develop entrepreneurial skills such as the ability to recognize market opportunity.
|Growth||Situation: organization is growing. The organization continues to meet growing demand for the products and as a result, experiences continued growth in both sales and number of employees.|
Strategy. Market segmentation becomes a determine growth strategy. Customers influence on decisions most. The organization tries to identify specific subgroups of customers and to make small product or service modifications in order to better serve them. The product line is broadening.
Structure: departmentalized functional structure. Functional departments are organized for the key areas of business. Structure becomes more complex and less centralized. Managers are appointed to head marketing, production and other departments. Greater effort is devoted to effective communication and coordination among departments. Team approach to management prevails.
Decision-making. More levels of managers involve in decision-making, as a result, some authority is delegated. However, power is still quite centralized.
Key skills required. While the successes in the Birth stage primarily depends on ‘creativity, flexibility and informality’, to be successful in the Growth stage, the leaders need to learn to delegate effectively.
|Maturity||Situation: sales levels stabilize. The focus turns from growth to profitability. Innovations switch from product to process to improve production efficiency and reduce unit costs. The tendency is to follow the competition and imitate innovations. Growth is occurring at a slower rate. A stable and circumscribed product line is sold in traditional markets. The competition is going after the same group of customers.|
Strategy: focused product-market scope. A short-term tactical rather than a long-term strategic orientation prevails. There is also more attention paid to solving immediate problems and less emphasis given to formulating explicit strategies.
Structure. Departmental, functionally based structure becomes more formal and bureaucratic. Information processing activity changes: there are more emphasis upon formal cost controls, budgets, and performance measures. There are typically several levels in the management hierarchy with a senior management team at the top.
Decision-making. Conservatism becomes the norm. Style of decision-making is less innovative, less proactive, less responsive and adaptive to the market.
Key skills required: to be effective, leaders must be proficient in formal planning, organization and administration.
|Revival||Situation. The organization experiences a period of rapid growth and reaches its largest size. This growth is generated by major and minor product-line and service innovations, acquisition in different industries, diversification and differentiation. Project teams and technical experts are recruited for R&D, engineering departments as well as to perform planning and analysis activities. Close attention is paid to project returns and the evaluation of potential customer reactions.|
Strategy: diversification, market segmentation, acquisition is determining growth strategies.
Structure. Divisional form of structure with autonomy of divisions and decentralization is adopted.
Decision-making. The heads of divisions become responsible for operational decisions and performance in different markets. Highly sophisticated control systems to monitor the performance of the divisions are used. While the divisions have the authority for the operational decisions, the power for overall strategy making is still highly centralized.
Key skills required. A major challenge faced at this stage is integration to avoid over controlling the divisions and at the same time, ensuring the synergy between divisions
|Decline||Situation. Profitability drops because of the external challenges and because of the lack of innovation. The product lines become still more outdated. The market scope is quite narrow.|
Strategy. No particular strategy
Structure. The structure of organization is centralized with few control systems.
Decision-making. Few managers, who make a conservative, internally political approach, make most decisions in the organization. Decision-making power is at the top of the organization; even routine operating decisions are executed by higher level managers. Communications between hierarchical levels and across departments are poor.
Key skill required. Renewal of organizational mission and strategy is to be a primary business task for organization. Ignoring of renewal inevitably brings organization to continued decline and finally to the death.
|Forms and Types of Coaching||Working Definition|
|Individual Coaching||one-to-one or dyadic, is provided by a coach to a single client.|
|Team Coaching||differs from group coaching. Team coaching is collective engagement, a group of people as a whole who performs to accomplish collective goals is considered a client|
|Executive Coaching||deals with individuals who have managerial responsibility. The purpose of executive coaching is to enhance the client’s professional performance and behavior change, and thereby contribute to individual and organizational success|
|Entrepreneurial Coaching||is an individual support to entrepreneurs to facilitate developing entrepreneurial self-efficacy and encourage entrepreneurs to transform their own strategic vision into action|
|Managerial Coaching (Manager as Coach)||implies a supervisor or manager facilitating support to subordinates aims to improve productivity and develop subordinates’ professional skills|
|Coaching for Innovation||aims to drive innovative processes in organization from finding ideas and developing them to linking innovations to the company’s strategy by facilitating the development and improvement skills contributing to innovation culture|
|Career Coaching||focused and goal-oriented type of coaching. The goal of career coaching is to assist the client to develop a career path and achieve career goals|
|Expert’s Running Number||Competence Coefficient (k)||Self-Confidence||Professional Position||Qualifications||Years of Practice|
|4||0.080||0.83||5.29||Researcher||Doctoral degree; Associated Certified Coach||5–9|
|15||0.079||1.00||10.0||Executive coach; Researcher||Doctoral degree; Professional Certified Coach||10–14|
|1||0.079||1.00||8.43||Executive coach; Researcher||Doctoral degree||10–14|
|2||0.073||0.50||7.43||Executive coach; Researcher||Doctoral degree; Professional Certified Coach||15 and more|
|9||0.071||0.83||9.43||Executive coach; Consultant||Master degree; Professional Certified Coach||5–9|
|8||0.068||0.67||6.86||Executive coach; Researcher||Specialist||10–14|
|6||0.067||1.00||8.00||Executive coach; Researcher||Doctoral degree; Professional Certified Coach||5–9|
|7||0.066||0.50||7.86||Consultant||Associated Certified Coach||3–4|
Associated Certified Coach
|10||0.062||0.83||8.43||Executive coach||Master degree; Professional Certified Coach||5–9|
|5||0.061||0.83||7.43||Executive coach||Master degree; Associated Certified Coach||3–4|
|14||0.060||1.00||9.00||Executive coach; Consultant||Master degree; Other||5–9|
|12||0.059||0.67||8.57||Executive coach||Master degree; Associated Certified Coach||3–4|
|11||0.045||0.50||3.71||Researcher; HR specialist||Master degree|
|Stages||Individual Coaching||Team Coaching||Executive Coaching||Entrepreneurial Coaching||Managerial Coaching||Coaching for Innovation||Career Coaching|
© 2018 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).