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Critical Thinking Development—A Necessary Step in Higher Education Transformation towards Sustainability

Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3418; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103418

Article
Relationships between Student Personality Traits, Mobbing, and Depression within the Context of Sustainable Tourism Education: The Case of a Faculty of Tourism
1
Faculty of Tourism, Department of Tourism Management, Akdeniz University, Campus 07058, Antalya, Turkey
2
Faculty of Tourism, Department of Recreation Management, Akdeniz University, Campus 07058, Antalya, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 September 2018 / Published: 25 September 2018

Abstract

:
Sustainable education has the target of improving skills that encourage students or life-long learners to reflect on actions realized by themselves. Its main concern is considering their actual and future cultural, socio-economic, and environmental impacts. Such a paradigm to evaluate these impacts is to bring about a local and a global perspective. Sustainability, as a means of qualified education, is a consequence of lifelong learning philosophy. All levels and all kinds of education should deal with the issues of sustainability and create holistic and transformational skills in this topic. In this context, pedagogy and learning environment is of great importance. Concerning learning environment, mobbing cases have frequently coincided in educational organizations. Mobbing has been regarded as an important business disease of contemporary work-life. Besides, mobbing might be coincided not only in the businesses but also in the organizations providing educational services. In schools and universities, mobbing leads to physiological, sociological, and psychological harms for the students. Recent studies have shown that in the school environment, students are exposed to a possible mobbing behavior and that their academic performance and achievement, as well as their mental and physical health, are negatively influenced. In addition, many academic studies indicate that the personality traits students have are an important predictor of exposure to mobbing and depression. This study aimed to determine the levels of mobbing and depression perceptions of students (type A, type B) who are studying tourism education at undergraduate level. In this context, within the groups of personality traits, the levels of depression in the process of mobbing were examined. Research data were collected from 524 students surveyed in a tourism faculty of a state university. In order to realize the data collection, Personality Traits, Mobbing, and Depression scales were used. Correlation, t-test, and regression analysis were performed as well as descriptive statistics (frequencies, mean, and standard deviation) in the process of data analysis. As a consequence of the research, it was determined that mobbing influenced psychological conditions of all students showing the features of A and B type as personality traits. Nevertheless, mobbing and depression perceptions differ upon their personality groups. It was found that the mean scores of mobbing and depression perceptions of students’ having A type personality traits were comparatively higher than the ones having B type personality traits. In addition, it has been revealed that there is a positive relationship between mobbing and depression perceptions of students. Mobbing explained 14% of the change in the depression levels of the students. As a result of the findings, it was determined that personality trait is an important and significant factor in the impact levels of students from mobbing and depression. Incorporation of personality traits into the transformational learning process in the education system as well as teaching and supporting of students with applied social education can be an effective element of sustainable education.
Keywords:
sustainable education; sustainable tourism education; personality; mobbing; depression

1. Introduction

The concept of sustainable tourism predicts the direction of both using the resources through conservation and conserving the resources by using them. It is an approach that provides services in terms of supply rather than demand. In this context, it aims to raise the tourism benefits to an optimal level. Sustainable tourism is not purely against growth. This concept willingly advocates that growth is to be bounded by the reasonable limits. Moreover, it deals with the issues of the ecosystem, carrying capacity, and interests of local people. Tourism, as being one of the fastest growing industries of the world, maintains its economic life through depending on natural, historical, and cultural resources which are identified as substantially exhaustible. The tourism industry is liable to the preferences of tourists. The number of arrivals is also dependent on the preservation and use of the above-mentioned resources. For a sustainable development, it is necessary to protect existing natural, cultural, historical, and artificial resources (tourism infrastructure factors) and fundamental ecological processes. Sustainable tourism possesses various principles such as sustainable use of tourism resources, sustainability of diversity, reduction of over-consumption, waste management, tourism planning, integrated work with the local community, supporting local economies, personnel training, consulting to sector stakeholders and local people, responsible tourism market insight, and research responsibility. Sustainable tourism development should be supported by the specific education focused on this topic and the above-listed principles. The qualified human resources trained through sustainable tourism education would play an effective role in the implementation of sustainable tourism policies.
In order to provide a sustainable and effective education, how the students are treated and what the students do is more important than how the teacher behaves and what s/he does in the school environment [1]. Many researchers studying personality have found that personality traits are an important predictor of academic success as well as other factors, and these personality traits constitute a significant difference in academic performance [2,3].Martin et al. found that individual differences in personality play a unique role in educational performance and cognition [4]. It is very important to determine the personality traits of the students and to prepare the curriculums for sustainable tourism education. Additionally, it is equally significant to determine the teaching methods and to take measures to prevent the practices and methods that might harm the sustainable tourism education.
It is regarded that mobbing possesses the characteristics of being a universal phenomenon as a “business disease” in almost all organizations and cultures [5], and mobbing cases are increasing day by day in many organizations. Mobbing is not only a psychological or physical harm to employees, but also a managerial problem. It prevents the organization from achieving its organizational and individual goals. Moreover, the organizational climate where the peace within the organization is dominant might be undamaged. In this respect, organizations are to recognize and prevent the mobbing phenomenon and to take the right steps in terms of informing the employees.
Mobbing has been experienced in organizational structures such as educational institutions for various reasons such as disinclining and removing certain individual(s) from the organizational environment, especially students, and it negatively affects the individuals in psychological aspects. In addition, mobbing has remained to be a considerable challenge as being one of the main causes affecting the education and training process in schools. Mobbing cases may lead to negative consequences both from the point of view of students exposed and the school, because the student exposed to mobbing is a member of the school by its very nature. Students who are exposed to mobbing might experience high levels of stress, become psychologically worn out, and experience health problems, such as depressive behaviors.
Mobbing has negative consequences for students and establishments in the organizational level. However, the levels of mobbing perception and the exposure of each student or each individual differ. While some students are more exposed to mobbing, the other ones are less or hardly involved in such cases [6]. In addition, there might be differences in the level of exposure. This is due to the personality traits of the students.
Mobbing and depression are important factors affecting work-life negatively, as well as being important risk factors in a sustainable education and training process. The subjects of educational organizations are the students. No matter what the reason is, not taking the socio-psychological characteristics of the students and the factors that affect these characteristics into account would directly affect the quality of the educational outcomes. Mobbing and depression, as a mental health problem, arise due to internal and environmental conditions. Both might be seen as the reason for the lack of motivation for undergraduate students causing many problems such as low academic achievement, leaving school, inadequate social and emotional skills, etc. Therefore, the qualifications of the students who are the output of the educational organizations are reduced. Causing damage to the sustainable education process is another potential consequence. Winzer et al. emphasize that interventions for mental illness prevention (methods of coping, techniques of overcoming stress, etc.) are effective in relieving depression, though they lose their effects in the long-term [7].
Sustainable education is defined as a transformative learning process through new knowledge and thinking styles needed to achieve economic prosperity and create responsible citizenship. This process encompasses the students, teachers, and school systems [8]. In sustainable tourism education, students need to carry out a transformational learning in which they will adopt the specific characteristics of tourism. In sustainable tourism education, students need to undertake transformational learning in which tourism-specific characteristics would be adopted. Considering the socio-psychological characteristics of the students in sustainable tourism education will increase the quality in the students and educational organizations. In the literature, no study has been conducted to investigate the effect of personality traits on mobbing and depression perceptions of students in sustainable tourism education. This lack of research reveals the originality of the current study. In this study, the relationships between personality traits and mobbing, between personality traits and depression, and between mobbing and depression were investigated. In the literature section (second section), terms and definitions about the concepts of personality, mobbing, and depression, and the relationships among them were explained. In the methodology section (third section), the sample and the research methodology were stated. In the findings section (the fourth section), the relationships among the above-mentioned concepts were examined through the data collected from the students. In the conclusion, discussion and suggestions section (fifth section), the findings of the current study and the similar ones in the literature were compared and suggestions were presented.

2. Literature Review

2.1. Sustainability in Tourism Education

Nowadays, sustainability is one of the most widespread words in use throughout the world. Sustainability is utilized by almost all of the disciplines due to the sub-dimensions it encompasses. Hence, various definitions are made by the decision-makers of these disciplines. In the Brundtland Report created after the convention of the World Commission on Environment and Development in 1983, sustainability refers to a long-term existence as “the ability to meet today’s needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” [9].
Tourism is one of the largest industries in the world, leading to a movement of 1.23 billion international tourists and providing 10% of the world’s GDP. Statistics indicate that one out of ten employments is in tourism. Moreover, 6.96% of total world exports in 2016 by 1.4 trillion USD were recorded to be generated by tourism [10]. In this context, in order to ensure sustainability in tourism, sustainability in tourism education should be provided. There has been broad consensus that sustainability in tourism education is an important element of the sustainability of the tourism industry [11]. While sustainable tourism protects the natural environment and cultural heritage, it also has the potential to provide sustainable local development. For this reason, sustainable tourism requires qualified human resources capable of providing effective leadership in sustainable development [12].
Education plays a central role in shaping the social change towards sustainability. The concept of sustainability education emphasizes the critical reflection of values by drawing the transformative paths of teaching and learning. Such an education is centralized on the active empowerment of students. The concept of sustainability education, which is recognized by many principles of critical pedagogy, focuses on an educational platform that helps students question their values, beliefs, and assumptions [13].
Educational institutions have the mission of providing the tourism industry with the quality and quantity of labor that is required by the world’s largest industry [14]. These institutions must demonstrate institutional responsibility to provide an effective learning environment for their students about sustainable tourism education. For this reason, tourism education institutions should try to keep the students in the industry by preparing curricula in order to meet the expectations and needs of the tourism sector on one hand. On the other hand, in the context of sustainability in tourism education, it is necessary for these organizations to create a physical and social education environment which is suitable for the students. In Afacan’s study sampled in interior architecture and environmental design students, an active learning environment and industry co-operation were found to influence positively the sustainable design awareness in project development and increasing academic success of the students [15].
Tourism information and tourism education have a great influence on the world and on tourism itself [16]. Cooperation among the three stakeholder groups (tourism students, tourism sector managers, and tourism educators) is of great importance in ensuring sustainability in tourism education. Taking the need for sustainable tourism development into account, many universities aim to integrate sustainable tourism education into their curricula. Effective sustainable tourism education brings some benefits for society and the nation’s economy. These benefits include increased employment, the protection of cultural and natural resources, and the positive economic impact of increased access to the external sources which the community benefits from. In this context, it is important to learn how sustainability approaches and practices can be incorporated into teaching and research in higher education in the field of tourism [17]. In the related literature, it has been stated that a transformative learning [18], the equivalence of theoretical and practical knowledge, skills education in tourism [19], educational methodology [12] and sustainable development competencies [20] the conception of sustainability in the curricula [14] are the requirements for sustainable tourism education.
Mobbing, as a business disease in the organizations, might prevail in educational institutions, causing students to suffer physiological and psychological illnesses. Moreover, they might feel daunted by the school and express their intention to leave the school. In the context of sustainable tourism education, directors of educational organizations are obliged to take necessary precautions and apply measures against mobbing cases within the organization because they have the responsibility to create proper labor and to meet the expectations of the students in order to satisfy them during their period of tourism education.

2.2. Personality Traits

In Latin, the word persona refers to the roles which they take with the masks put on the theater players’ faces [21]. The concept of personality originating from the word “persona” is the characteristic that the individual brings from birth and is earned through experience. These characteristics distinguish it from other individuals [22]. It is an interactive, emotional, motivational, experiential interaction style that explains the behaviors that an individual presents in different situations [23]. These different definitions are due to the different approaches to the factors affecting personality development in the relevant literature. One of these approaches emphasizes that genetic factors and early childhood experiences are influential in personality development, while others point out that personality always evolves in the context of the effects of social and environmental factors [24]. Personality, as being constantly under the influence of internal and external stimuli, includes all psychological and biological, inherited and acquired talents, instincts, feelings, wishes, habits, and all behaviors of the individual [25]. It is a consistent and structured relationship established by the individual’s internal and external environment [26]. Personality is what distinguishes one person from the other. It is a characteristic that is effective in showing original behaviors [27].
Personality reflects all the characteristics of an individual. The unique and original formation of each individual makes the personality traits unique and original [27]. Differences that are originally expressed by the personality psychologically represent all the characteristics of a particular individual. Behaviorally, there are also differences in the mental, physical, and spiritual characteristics of a particular individual. In terms of behavioral sciences, personality is defined as the reflection of the individual’s mental, physical, and spiritual differences in their behavior and lifestyle [28]. The personality traits that cause these individual differences are influenced by biological and cultural factors, family, society, and groups of friends [27]. In addition to these, mass media and the use and non-use of these media are other factors [29]. On the other hand, different dynamics such as perception, habits, thoughts, and desires are also effective [30].
The concept of personality consists of three components, namely character, temperament, and ability. Character refers to the social and moral features of the personality. The character is all the general features that form and shape the mental power of the individual. The personality traits that the individual makes in a given time frame are the view of a character. The second aspect of the personality is temperament. Temperament is the change in quality and quantity of certain emotional reactions that are specific to the individual in daily life while expressing some basic and distinctive features of the individual [31]. The third element of personality is ability, which represents the entire mental and physical abilities an individual possesses [29].
Personality is the complex integration of many features. For this reason, it is extremely difficult to resolve the personality that develops under the influence of different dynamics. Nonetheless, in the literature of personality, different classifications are considered to help and contribute to the analysis of personality. Within these classifications, Sigmund Freud’s Theory of Personality deals with personality in an emotional aspect and suggests that mental structure is reflected in the external world as a psychological phenomenon [26]. Eric Berne’s Theory of Personality, like Freud’s, deals with the emotional personality and examines personality in terms of childhood, maturity and ancestry processes [32]. Carl Jung’s Theory of Personality argues that a significant portion of the personality is unconscious and self-composed [33]. Alfred Adler’s Theory of Personality predicts that the individual will demonstrate self-empowering behavior [34]. Karen Homey’s Theory of Personality deals with anxiety and fear as the basic elements of your personality [35]. Haris J. Eyseck’s Theory of Personality, including the dimensions of neuroticism-stability, extroversion-introversion, and psychoticism, addresses personality within the biological approach [36]. In John L. Holland’s Theory of Personality, it is stated that each individual has one of the six types of personality [37]: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional. In the Warren Norman Five Factor Personality Theory, personality is based on the factors of extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability (vs. Neuroticism), and Intellect (Openness) [38]. Meyer Friedman and Ray H. Rosenman classify personality as A and B type [39]. A and B Personality Type scale developed by Friedman and Rosenman was used in this study.
The concept of personality type A and B was first revealed by two cardiologists Meyer Friedman and Ray H. Rosenman in relation to the concept of stress [40] and has been widely accepted nowadays [39]. Personality traits of type A and B are one of the hundreds of features that shape the personality, but not the features that define a complex multidimensional person. Types A and B are a form of attitude and behavior revealed in life. A person who carries the characteristics of the B-type behavior may sometimes show the A-type behavior. No one in the world has the same dominance of all the features of A-type behavior. These characteristics do not occur at the same frequency, either. Classification and discrimination depend on whether the feature is dominant or recessive and on the frequency of its occurrence. Therefore, the classification of human attitudes and behaviors as A and B type depends on the intensity of these characteristics and how often they are presented as a behavior [41]. Researchers found that personality types and levels of exposure to stress in the daily lives of individuals are closely related. In individuals with type A personality, cardiac conditions are more likely to occur twice as often as individuals with Type B personality [42]. Individuals with Type A personality are those who are inexorable, competitive, and desire to control everything, who are introverted, who hate to waste time, who are trying to do many things at the same time and are therefore always fussy, unhappy, impatient, and angry with other people [43]. They would like an instant and immediate success as much as possible [44]. They race against time and they are success-oriented [45,46]. Generally, they try to do several tasks at the same time. They have the tendency to break into the others’ conversation because they do not have the patience to wait. They are extremely competitive [47,48,49]. Individuals with type B personality, on the contrary, are less competitive, less devoted to the work, less sensitive to time, experiences fewer conflicts with time, more balanced, and have a comfortable approach to life, working at a decisive pace. They are defined as those who feel more comfortable, more docile, more opportunities for leisure activities, free from rigid rules and flexible, not ambitious enough, enjoying what they do, enjoying calm and tidy work, self-confident and sure of those around [32,50,51]. Lazarus notes that type B people also experience stress, but are less panic in the face of challenges and threats [52].
Friedman and Rosenman have stated that people can’t be type A or type B purely, but rather be more inclined towards one of these two types. For example, a person often shows A personality traits, but suddenly may be quiet and calm for a short while, and in some cases s/he may even forget the time [44]. Considering the above-mentioned characteristics of type A individuals, it is easy to understand why they experience stress and stress related diseases live more than the others. However, recent research has shown that individuals with type A personality can cope with stress or decrease the levels of stress more easily than the individuals of type B personality. Type A personality features should not be perceived negatively. The negative aspect which generates undesired consequences is that individuals with Type A personality are generally extremely angry and impatient due to the rapid tempo of their lives, and thus they are living in conflict with the others. It has also been found that individuals with A type personality in the mid and lower levels of organizations are more successful than individuals with type B personality. Rather, individuals with B type personality in the senior executive positions are more successful because of their patient and comprehensive thinking. In this case, it is possible to say that individuals can be more successful by shifting between type A personality and type B personality up to the requirements of time and environment [39].

2.3. Mobbing

International Labor Organization (ILO), defined “mobbing assault at a workplace is, systematically and persistently directing intimidating, self-confidence staggering, insulting, exclusionist, ignoring, unfair words and/or behaviors toward a targeted person, by the employer or one or more employees” [53]. Mobbing contains debasing and frightening behavior designed to humiliate the target person. These behaviors are revealed in the form of shouting, tantrum, refusing to take work shifts or changes, gossiping about the target person, making unproven critics, stalking, humiliating, isolating, attacking the self-respect of the target person, and randomly changing responsibilities [54]. From the paradigm of Hoel et al., mobbing is a systematic aggression that is made by one or more people being targeted by other people, as opposed to the clash between employees in the organization [55]. Mobbing behaviors occur frequently (statistically once a week) and over a long period (at least six months) [56].
Mobbing assaults are repetitive, unwanted behaviors that are carried out by one or more people, frequently and over time, directed to one or more persons. People exposed to mobbing have difficulties in defending themselves against these actions and remain vulnerable. Mobbing is defined as situations that explicitly involve intimidation behavior, cause grief and sadness on the target person, have an impact on job performance, or cause discomfort in the working environment [40,56,57,58,59,60,61,62].
From the viewpoint of the mobbing victims, the organization itself is at the leading factor of the most common causes of mobbing [63]. Leymann points out the reasons for mobbing as (1) organization itself; (2) poor conflict management; and (3) personality of the victim. In addition, Leymann suggests four main reasons why people generally tend towards mobbing behavior. These are (1) to force someone to accept a rule of the group; (2) to get rid of someone they do not like; (3) to be in search of pleasure because of boredom; and (4) to reinforce prejudices [56]. Tinaz notes that there are four underlying factors in mobbing behaviors. These are (1) enjoying hostility; (2) believing that they are privileged; (3) paying out what they cannot have; and (4) being selfish [64]. Leymann classified the behaviors of mobbers into five categories as (1) behaviors against effective communication of victims; (2) behaviors against victims’ social support; (3) behaviors against victims’ personalities; (4) behaviors against victims’ professional status; and (5) behaviors against victims’ physical health [65].
The risk of being the target of mobbing is valid for everyone in all workplaces and in all cultures. Although the mechanism of the mobbing process develops differently in different workplaces, a very typical and similar path is generally followed in the process. If the mobbing process is considered as a classic drama, it is the victim who experiences the most damage in the play. The rules of the mobbing game are determined by the mobber, not by the victim. The mobbing victim can’t change any rule by himself or herself. The victim has to accept the role in a game of which the rules have been determined by the others. There is no personality typology that is likely to play a victim role in the mobbing case. Notwithstanding, there are four different types of people in the workplace who are potentially confronted with the danger of being a victim (1) a lonely person; (2) a different person; (3) a successful person; and (4) a newcomer [66].
Mobbing in the workplace happens in four stages. In the first stage, a conflict should be on the nail as the occurrence of a triggering critical event. In the second stage, the onset of psychological harassment which can also be called the maturation of the conflict should come into being. Mobbers begin to act continuously and systematically. In the third stage, business management takes over and misidentification and descriptions are in the scene. At this stage, management takes its place within the negative cycle. In the fourth stage, the leaving of the work-life might be experienced. At this stage, the victim individual gets away from the working life [67]. However, it should be noted that the mobbing case in every workplace does not have to reach the final stage. The individual who is exposed to mobbing may resign from the work or may be fired at the end of any of the previous phases [68].
Mobbing, in terms of its consequences, is important for the victim and the organization. Intentional and systematic repetitive mobbing creates effects on the victim. In addition to economic and social effects, negative effects on mental and physical health are also seen. When economically approached, there is a loss of regular income in the event of resignation or being fired, in addition to the amounts paid to doctors, medicines, and hospitals for the recuperation of physical, spiritual, and physical health that was gradually lost. The damaged social image of the individual is the social outcome of the psychological mobbing process. In this case, the individual is excluded from the workplace and loses its place in the social and family environment as well as the professional identity. In the study of Namie, it is stated that three-fourth of victims or spectators of such situations gave up and resigned from their jobs [64]. The consequences of the mobbing process on the individual’s mental and physical health are depression, panic attacks, high blood pressure, tachycardia, hand tremor, uncomfortable hot flashes or chills, throat knots or air panting, headaches, back pain, immune system decline, gastrointestinal disturbances, feeling of abandonment, loss of appetite, weakness, skin rashes, etc. Leymann claims that between 10–20% of suicide cases occurring in Sweden in a given year are caused by mobbing in the workplace. The effects of mobbing on the organization are decreasing quality and quantity of work andthe deterioration of communication and teamwork. In addition, unpleasant relationships among employees, misconduct, increased sick leave, loss of dignity and reliability, compensations, and lawsuits might be seen [65].
The report of the International Labor Organization in terms of business, mentions that mobbing damages interpersonal relationships in the medium and long term, the business and the whole business environment. Employers have to bear the direct and indirect costs of labor loss caused by psychological mobbing. Mobbing cases in academic institutions usually lead to many individual and institutional consequences, both physically and psychologically [69]. Cassel listed the influences bullying and mobbing on the professors working in undergraduate education organizations as follows: stress, depression, suicidal ideas, reduced self-esteem, self-indulgence, phobia, sleep disorders, digestive problems, musculoskeletal problems, social isolation, family problems, traumatic stress disorder, new recruitment inefficiencies, dysfunctional working environment, claims for health and employees’ rights, reduced productivity, decreasing employee morale, reduced loyalty, sabotage/revenge actions, litigation, and absenteeism [70].

2.4. Depression

Depression is a syndrome that includes symptoms such as thinking in a deeply distressed state of feeling, slowing in speech and movements, languishment, worthlessness, weakness, reluctance, pessimism, and slowing down physiological functions [71]. World Health Organization (WHO) reports that between 150 and 250 million people in nearly 3–5% of the world’s population have depressive symptoms at various levels [49]. Gelder et al. reported that the rate of depressive symptoms in the community is between 13–20% [72]. Goldberg et al. found that depressive symptoms were 20–24% in females and 10–16% in males [73].
Depressive individuals often have a mask-like external appearance, often depressed, sad and hopeless. S/he evaluates every event from a pessimistic direction, he does not care about any activity that pleasures, s/he may want to be alone, s/he can sit for a while and sit for hours. S/he may complain of difficulty in concentrating attention if the process of thinking does not slow down [74]. The person feels deprived and inadequate, loses his/her pleasure in life, constantly tired, looks pessimistic about people and events, constantly speaks and constantly complains [32]. People can experience this situation, which is defined as emotional depression for many reasons in their daily lives. For example, not getting a job, failing in an exam, losing relatives and alike situations can lead people to be emotionally depressed. Emotional depression may last for days, weeks, or even months, as well as finishing in a short term. The theory developed by Beck et al. proposes that the cause of depression is not primarily a feeling disorder but a cognitive disorder. In the formation of depression, three cognitive situations were mentioned. These are, (1) a negative view of the person to himself; (2) a negative view of the person to the experiences; and (3) a negative view of the person to the future [75].
There is a strong relationship between negative life experiences and [76]. Many studies highlighting the importance of social interaction and the quality of this interaction indicate that mental health and physical well-being are related to living relationships with family, friends, and other important people [77]. In a study of 233 university students by Dunkley and Blankstein, they found that self-critical perfectionism was significantly related to non-adaptive coping [78]. This kind of perfectionist cognitive personality uses the ways of coping with stressful situations, such as emotional response, self-blaming, dreaming, and directing himself/herself to other things. This leads to despair and hopelessness that is the domination of depression [79].

2.5. Personality Traits and Mobbing

In the related literature, it is seen that two approaches basically dominate the mobbing and personality traits relationship. Those who advocate that the personality traits of the victim are influential in the formation of mobbing and those who claim that the influence of personality traits can’t be mentioned in the case of mobbing victimization. Leymann suggests that the victim’s personality is not effective in exposure to mobbing, the findings about the victim’s personality traits are revealed after one was exposed to mobbing behaviors [56]. Djurkovic et al. found that the personality traits of the victim were not effective in exposure to mobbing [80]. The advocates of a relationship between mobbing and personality emphasize two aspects. These are the ones who claim that personality structure of the victim has an effect on the impact (feeling the mobbing behavior). The second aspect is the ones who claim that personality structure of the victim has an effect on the exposure and being the victim [81]. In this context, it is emphasized that perception is important when there is a relationship between mobbing and personality. In other words, it is stated that some personality traits perceive some behaviors more deeply [6]. Zapf indicates that mobbing perception is stronger in personality traits such as continuous complaints, extreme meticulousness, continuous anxiety, etc. [63]. Coyne et al., in their research, indicated that people who are identified as “docile, controversial, and conflict-free, honest and trustworthy, tied to tradition, solid character and planned, preferring to be present in calm, timid, and customary environmental conditions” have a greater potential to be affected by mobbing behaviors [82]. In the study conducted by Avcı and Kaya, it has been revealed that the attacks for showing oneself and the social attacks differ in agreement with the personality trait of the individual [81].
Researchers who think that the personality trait is an effect of being a victim of the mobbing case suggest that some employees in the organizational environment attract the organizational environment by their superior knowledge and skills compared to others. These researchers argue that such kind of people are considered to be threatening to other employees because of the new ideas they are trying to put into practice and the desire to achieve superior success [83]. In a study conducted by Pranjic et al., a correlation was found between type A and type B stress personalities and mobbing exposure. The people who have A type personality traits such as hasty time use, generally regarding himself as a busy person, and behaving extremely competitive were found to be mobbing victims in a great proportion [84]. In other studies dealing directly or indirectly with the relationship between personality and mobbing, those who are “regular, punctual, workplace, perfectionist” were found to be targeted [85]. It has been argued that employees who are “competent, creative, and innovative” with relatively superior knowledge and skills are experiencing discomfort within the organization or group and may be more exposed to intimidation [65,86]. It is thought that this situation would be felt much in the traditional/conservative organizations [81]. The hypothesis concerning the relationship between personality traits and mobbing is presented below.
Hypothesis 1 (H1).
There is a significant difference between the personality traits of the students and the mobbing perceptions.

2.6. Personality Traits and Depression

Depression is not utterly the problem of only weak people, as one might think. It is as well the serious problem of those who have a sense of extreme responsibility, who are strong, hardworking, and meticulous, and for the perfectionist people trying to help everyone around the family, school, and friends under any burden. Perfectionists are generally very successful at work, but often are nervous, anxious, and pessimistic. They criticize themselves and others too much. Such kind of people preoccupies the brains of their own constantly about the better fulfillment of their obligations. They take all kinds of possibilities into consideration. Excessively meticulous and perfectionist people set superordinate goals for themselves, and they are disappointed when they can’t achieve them. Since such people are very elaborative and thoughtful, they also expect the same attitude from the people around, and feel that they are exposed to injustice if they cannot find what they expected [87]. People who are susceptible to depression have personality traits such as not hurting anyone, regarding their achievements inadequate, being too addicted to their dignity, often not expressing their anger, and enduring in silence [88].
Personality traits can be a risk factor for depression. Depression is reported to develop more on the neurotic, addictive, obsessive, introverted, unsociable, anxious, unconfident, pessimistic personality traits that create difficulties in the individual’s coping skills with stress and interpersonal relationships throughout their life. Recognizing the relationship between depression and personality would probably require reconsideration of the views suggested in terms of emergence, healing, and soothing of mental illnesses up to now. Every concept, such as genetic susceptibility, environmental interactions, early life, learning, stress sensitivity, ability to cope with stress, attachment, addiction, and self-esteem, is included in the interest of this subject in the frame of personality and psychopathology theories. Akiskal et al. suggested four models in order to explain the relationship between depression and personality. These are (1) Predisposition or vulnerability model: Personality traits are the basis for the development of depression; (2) Patoplasticity model: Personality traits affect the clinical presentation of depression; (3) Complication or sequel model: Depression causes a change in personality functions; (4) Continuity or spectrum model: The underlying processes cause both problems of personality and depression [89]. Sumi and Kanda found that neurotic perfectionism significantly predicted depression and psychosomatic symptoms in their study implemented on a sample consists of 138 university students [90]. In the study conducted by Lozano and Johnson, it was revealed that personality traits affect the course of depressive symptoms [91]. The hypothesis concerning the relationship between personality traits and depression is presented below.
Hypothesis 2 (H2).
There is a significant difference between personality traits and depression perceptions of the students.

2.7. Mobbing vs. Depresssion

Craig states that mobbing occurs when there is a power imbalance that is regarded as real by the parties [92]. Mobbing is suggested to have emerged in situations where there is more power inequality, where powerless is dominated by powerful. It is claimed that depression and anxiety symptoms of victims are increasing. In addition, it is stated that the victims need more psychological help and their self-esteem becomes lower. The effects seen in the victims in the first stage of the process are usually crying without any reason, sleeping disorders and insomnia, immediate irritation, and loss of concentration. In the second stage, symptoms such as high blood pressure, stomach complaints, depression, unwillingness to go to work, and being late to work are added. In the third stage, the severity of depression increases, panic attacks and anxiety occur. Accidents and suicide tendencies are more likely to occur at the end of the process [65]. Research in many different countries emphasizes that victims of mobbing are experiencing various psychological problems such as anxiety, anger, depression, difficulty in focusing attention, and low self-esteem [63,92,93]. In the research realized by Zapf, it was found that there was a significant difference between those who experienced mobbing behavior and those who did not, in terms of exposure to depression. It was also stated that there exists a considerable relationship between mobbing behavior and depression [63]. Those who suffered from mobbing behavior recorded a higher depression score. Niedhammer et al. concluded that mobbing is a very strong risk factor for depressive symptoms in both males and females [94]. Morán et al. found a positive relationship between mobbing and health problems such as somatic symptoms, anxiety, insomnia and depression [95]. Hansen et al. found that workers who were exposed to mobbing in a survey which consists of more than 1900 employees as a sample in Denmark reported higher rates of reporting depressive symptoms, when compared to a reference group [96]. Likewise, Takaki et al. conducted a cross-sectional study in Japan with more than 2600 employees as a sample, and the results showed that mobbing actions were positively associated with depressive symptoms [97]. Similarly, in the study of Yildiz and Yildiz, it was found that those who had mobbing behaviors expressed a higher level of depression than those who didn’t [98]. The hypothesis concerning the relationship between mobbing and depression is presented below.
Hypothesis 3 (H3).
There is a positive relationship between mobbing and depression perceptions of the students.
Hypothesis 4 (H4).
The personality traits of students positively affect mobbing perceptions and depression perceptions.

3. Methodology

In this study, it was investigated whether belonging to personality type A and personality type B has an effect while being exposed to mobbing behaviors and while being affected by these behaviors. Additionally, levels of depression perceptions (type A-type B) were analyzed whether they indicated any difference. Data were collected from 524 students attending to Akdeniz University Faculty of Tourism. Relationships between personality traits, mobbing, and depression variables were analyzed.
In defining the personality traits, personality inventory developed by Friedman and Rosenman (1959) was used and A or B type personalities identified [99]. In the determination of mobbing behaviors, mobbing exposure perception levels were measured through a scale prepared by combining “Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terror (LIPT)” developed by Leymann (1996) [56] and “Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ)” developed by Einarsen and Rakness (1997) [93]. Moreover, “Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)” developed by Beck (1961) [100] was used to measure the conceptual, cognitive, and somatic components of the students.

3.1. Significance of the Study

The personality traits of people closely influence their behavior patterns, their relationships with others, the way they perceive the environment and the external world, and the psychological situation in which they are. Personality research can contribute to people better understanding themselves, their professional development, and making their social lives more harmonious with the environment. In particular, the identification of the types of personalities and the personal and the environmental qualifications that have the potential to influence these types can contribute to the better understanding of individuals and their successful and peaceful lifespan [101].
Many factors are assumed to be effective in being the victim of mobbing and being affected by mobbing behavior. Within these factors, the personality traits of the individual are thought to be important in terms of being the target of mobbing behavior and being affected by mobbing behavior. At the same time, having a specific personality affects the individual’s tendency towards depression. Knowing the personality traits will contribute to the development of a certain awareness and understanding of the individual against mobbing and depression which deeply affect the private and social life negatively. As a result of examining the relationship between personality traits and mobbing and depression, it may be possible to manage and control mobbing, and a proactive approach to depression may be revealed.

3.2. Purpose of the Research

The purpose of the study is to determine the personality traits of students attending Akdeniz University Faculty of Tourism and to reveal the relationship between these personality structures, mobbing, and depression. In this study of being exposed to mobbing, being affected by mobbing behavior and depression situations of the students in accordance with the determined personality traits were investigated. Thus, the level of being the victim of mobbing and the level of being affected by mobbing behaviors are revealed. In addition, it was attempted to determine the personality traits of students with high and low depression status.

3.3. Data Collection

The population of the research is composed of 2183 students registered in Akdeniz University Faculty of Tourism in 2017–2018 academic year. In the sample, 524 students were reached with a 95% confidence level through convenience sampling method. Data were collected using the survey technique. The questionnaire created to obtain the data consists of four sections. In the first section, the personal information of the students (gender, family residence, level of income, school preference ranking, satisfaction with the school, satisfaction with the accommodation places) is included. Personality, mobbing, and depression scales are listed in the second, third, and fourth part respectively.
Personality Type Scale: This scale consists of 20 items. It was developed by Fredman and Rosenman. Participants were asked to mark one of the options in the form of “Always”, “Often”, “Sometimes”, “Rarely”, and “Never”. The reliability coefficient calculated for this scale is Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.712. This value indicates that the scale has the relevant reliability score by 0.60 ≤ 0.712 ≤ 0.80 [102].
Mobbing Scale: Two scales were used to determine mobbing exposure levels. The “Leymann Inventory of Psychological Terror (LIPT) Scale” [56] covering 45 questions is the first one. The second is the “Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ)” developed by Einarsen and Rakness [93] and Salin [6] covering 14 questions. By combining these two scales, a scale covering 40 questions was formed. Participants were asked to mark one of the options in the form of “Always”, “Often”, “Sometimes”, “Rarely”, and “Never”.
Depression Scale: Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI) is a self-report scale developed by Beck [100] to measure emotional, cognitive, somatic, and motivational components. In the validity and reliability study performed by Hisli on 259 university students, the reliability coefficients were found to be r = 0.80 by the item analysis method and by r = 0.74 by the interdivision method. Research results of the studies realized both in Turkey and in the other countries indicated that Beck’s Depression Inventory was tested as a valid and reliable means of measurement [103]. This scale consist of 21 sets of items, each set is ranked in terms of severity and scored from 0 to 3. Each item has four replying options (0–3) changing conforming to the question. Individual scale items are scored on a 4-point continuum (0 = least, 3 = most), with a total summed score range of 0–63.For instance, in an item, it was listed as from 0 to 3 where “1” means “I do not feel sad” and “4” means “I am so sad and unhappy I cannot stand it”. As dimensions, two items are affective, eleven items are cognitive, two items are behavioral, five items are somatic, and one item is reserved for interpersonal symptoms.

3.4. Research Model

The scales used in this research identified the personality types of the students as A and B, and the levels of mobbing and depression perception were also determined. Thus, the relationships between personality types of students, mobbing exposure, and depression were investigated. In accordance with the hypotheses developed, the research model was presented in Figure 1.

3.5. Data Analysis

The Kolmogorov–Smirnov test was performed to determine whether the data were normally distributed in multivariate analysis, and it was found a normal distribution. Parametric tests (t-test) and descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation), correlation, and regression analysis were selected. Because the data had a normal distribution. Cronbach’s Alpha reliability analysis was used to measure the reliability of the scale used in the study, and confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the construct validity of the depression scale. Statistical analysis packages were used to perform data analysis.

4. Findings

This section presents the information obtained as a result of the data analysis.

4.1. Validity and Reliability

Cronbach Alpha coefficient is 0.93 in the overall reliability analysis of the scales used in the research. Cronbach’s Alpha coefficients of scales are 0.73, 0.95, and 0.89 for personality type, mobbing, and depression scales, respectively. Cronbach’s Alpha values indicate that the reliability of the scales is sufficient.

4.2. Factor Analysis and Reliability of Depression Scale

In order to indicate the construct validity, Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the depression scale (CFA) has been performed. As a result of the confirmatory factor analysis, it was determined that the model with 21 items proposed low fit indices. Having the value of less than 0.50 “3,5,6,9,12,13,14,15,17,18,19,20” numbered items were determined. In total, 12 items were removed from the scale. Subsequently, CFA was reactivated. In order to test the adequacy of the sample size, Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin (KMO) test was performed. The Barlett Sphericity test was carried out to determine whether and variables had normal distribution. The KMO value of the depression is 0.820, and the Barlett Sphericity test results are significant. After factor analysis and varimax rotation, Depression Scale was determined to have three dimensions which explained 62.922% of total variance. Table 1 presents the factors of depression.
Convergence validity is the high correlation coefficients between the variables that make up a construct, or the sub-dimensions themselves. Another definition tells that convergence validity is the case where independent criteria for the same concept are getting closer or highly correlated. In order to comment on the convergence validity of a scale, it is expected that the construct reliability of that scale should be ensured. The method that Fornell and Larcker suggested for convergent validity was used in this study. In this method, in order to provide convergent validity of the scale, the average variance extracted (AVE) values of the variables should be over 0.5, and the composite reliability values (CR) must be over 0.7 [104]. That is, the composite reliability of each dimension forming the scale is to be close to or higher than 0.7 [105]. Another assumption for ensuring convergence validity is the calculation of average variance explained (AVE). In this assumption, the mean variance of each dimension forming the scale should be 0.5 or higher [104]. For the analysis of the convergent validity of the depression scale, the goodness of fit values for the above-mentioned criteria are presented in Table 2. When examined, it can be said that the coefficients of construct reliability are over the accepted limits of 0.7. When the values of average variance explained were investigated, it can be said that they are in the acceptance level for all dimensions except for three dimensions. Considering both the construct reliability with AVE values and the correlation results given in Table 2, it can be said that there exists convergence validity in the depression scale.
Discriminant validity can be conceptually defined as the discrimination of the dimensions forming the scale [106]. Discriminant validity indicates the degree of discrimination between different constructs. In this study, the model proposed by Fornell and Larcker was used as discriminant validity [104].This model’s discriminant validity is based on an assumption. The assumption is that the average variance explained (AVE) of a construct is to be higher than the squared correlation coefficients between that construct and other constructs. The existence of discriminant validity can be mentioned for all factors based on the square of the correlation values and AVE values given in Table 2.

4.3. Demographics

Of the students who participated in the survey, 48.7% were female, 51.3% were male, 11.5% were one of the children of the families living in the village, 10.9% were one of the children of the families living in the town, and 77.7% were one of the children of the families living in urban areas. In terms of income levels of families, 14.5% low income, 78.4% medium income, and 7.1% higher income families were listed. The socio-cultural factors that are thought to affect the level of readiness of the students’ families are the places they live and the income situation. In the school preference rankings of the students, 40.1% were placed in 1–4th choice, 59.4% in 5–8th choice, 0.4% in 9–12th choice, and 0.2% in 13th and further choice. Besides, 33.6% of the participant students were satisfied with the school, 19.7% were not satisfied with the school, 46.8% were somewhat satisfied, 66.8% of them were satisfied with the accommodation, 9.9% were dissatisfied, and 23.3% were somewhat satisfied.

4.4. Findings Related to Research Hypotheses

4.4.1. Relationship between Type of Personality and Mobbing

In Table 3, it is observed that students with type B personality characteristics ( x ¯ = 1.3085) and students with type A personality characteristics ( x ¯ = 1.4501) reflected the average mobbing perception. The t-test on mobbing perception differences between students (type A-type B), indicated that there was a significant difference (t = −3.089, p < 0.05).

4.4.2. Relationship between Type of Personality and Depression

In Table 4, it is observed that students with type B personality traits ( x ¯ = 1.4447) and students with type A personality traits ( x ¯ = 1.6007) reflected the average depression perception. The t-test on depression perception differences of the students indicated that there existed a significant difference (t = −4.033, p < 0.05).

4.4.3. Relationship between Mobbing and Depression

The relationship between mobbing and depression was examined by the Spearman correlation coefficient technique in Table 5. There is a positive correlation between mobbing and depression (r = 0.384, p < 0.05).

4.4.4. Effect of Mobbing on Depression

The effect of mobbing perceptions on depression levels of the students is shown in Table 6.
The F value of 90.557 in Table 6 indicates that the model is significant at all levels as a whole (Sig. = 0.000). From t statistics values belonging to the parameters, it is seen that each of the variables included in the model is significant (in the level of 5%). The mobbing variable, forwhich the ß value is 0.327, affects depression positively. In this case, it can be said that depression level will increase when mobbing perception level increases. Mobbing explains the depression level at a rate of 0.148 (R2 = 0.148). Consequently, a 14% change in depression might be explained by the mobbing variable included in the model.

4.4.5. Effect of Mobbing on the Dimensions of Depression

The effect of mobbing perceptions on depression dimensions of the students is shown in Table 7.
The F values in the table [(51.017), (30.274), (19.752)] show that the models are significant at all levels as a whole (Sig. = 0.000). From t values belonging to the parameters, it is seen that each of the variables included in the model is significant (in the level of 5%). Mobbing variable affected positively the levels of perception of conceptual, somatic, and cognitive depression dimensions by the ß values of (ß = 0.320) (ß = 0.293), and (ß = 0.233) respectively. In this case, it can be said that when the mobbing perception level increases, the perception of depression dimensions will increase. Mobbing explains the conceptual depression level as 0.089 (R2 = 0.089), the somatic depression level as 0.055 (R2 = 0.055), and the cognitive depression level as 0.036 (R2 = 0.036) in terms of the depression dimensions. This result implies that the changes of 8%, 5%, and 3%, respectively, in conceptual, somatic, and cognitive depression are explained by the mobbing variable included in the model.

5. Discussion, Conclusions, and Recommendations

In the “Mobbing Information Guide in the Workplace” published by Turkish Republic Ministry of Labor and Social Services (MoLSS) published in 2014, it was mentioned that the effect of mobbing on the victim individual in the workplace can lead to different outcomes due to the stages of psychological harassment and the personality traits of the individual. From the point of the victim, it is generally stated that mobbing causes physical and mental ailments, behavioral disorders, social problems, and economic losses. It is also reported to cause many serious diseases, especially severe depression [107]. Furlong and Morrison suggested that mobbing in school means “aggressive and criminal behaviors that produce negative consequences on the climate of the school, harm the learning process of the students, and prevent their development” [108]. These behaviors are stated as direct and indirect threats to the verbal and emotional abuse of the lecturers, the school management and the peer students [109]. Qualitative research conducted by Sen shows that new and/or successful people in the organization are exposed to mobbing. However, it is stated that people have different thoughts about the behaviors that are evaluated as mobbing and what is perceived as mobbing [110]. In the current study, it was emphasized that the probability of occurrence of such behaviors and the frequency of these behaviors may be reduced through the recognition and prevention of the main factors that provide the basis for mobbing behaviors.
It is claimed that many factors influence the processes of being exposed to mobbing and being affected by the mobbing behavior in school environment. Personality traits are thought to be important in being the target and in the extent of being affected [81]. By classifying the personality as type A and type B, researchers shed light on the social and psychological structure of the individual. As a matter of fact, the personality structure possessed by the individual has a great influence on the attitudes and behavior of the individual, his/her relations, positions, and preferences in life. Moreover, decisions made by the individual, one’s harmony with the environment, etc. have considerable impacts as well [111]. In the study conducted by Kulig et al., it was determined that identifying the personality traits constitutes the first important step in predicting victimization in a school setting [112]. In this context, it has been proposed to examine different types of personality and their dimensions to determine which features are protective and which of them are risk factors. The qualitative study conducted by Civilidag was realized in order to state the precautions for the prevention of mobbing in educational organizations. Employees and students should be educated about psychological harassment in the workplace, and they should be aware of which behaviors might be regarded as mobbing in the workplace [113]. Similarly, Tiryaki and Aykac stated that being familiar with the personality types and characteristics would increase the efficiency and communication in the working and school environment [114].
As a result of current research, the alpha values of the scales used were found to be relevant. A three-dimensional (conceptual, somatic, cognitive) model as proposed by Avşar was formed in the depression scale of the current study [115]. Analyzes were realized for differences in mobbing and depression perception of the students (type A-type B). There was a significant difference (t = −3.089, p < 0.05) in mobbing perceptions when compared to personality traits. It was determined that mean of mobbing perception of type A personality traits ( x ¯ = 1.4501) was higher than that of type B ( x ¯ = 1.3085). In addition, there was a significant difference (t = −4.033, p < 0.05) in depression perceptions of students (type A-type B).Similar to mobbing perception, it was determined that the students with type A personality characteristics had a higher average depression perception ( x ¯ = 1.6007) than type B students ( x ¯ = 1.4447). Sadeq and Molinari claimed that personality traits are associated with the diagnosis and course of depression in adults [116]. In this context, it would be useful to evaluate personality traits formally. Similar to the current research, in the study conducted by Aktaş, it was determined that managers with type A personality had a higher level of work stress than those with type B manager [117]. However, in the study conducted by Okutan and Sututemiz, there was a difference between the personality traits of type A and type B in terms of work-oriented mobbing behaviors. People with type B personality are more likely to be exposed to mobbing behaviors [118]. Nevertheless, it has been emphasized that workers in this study may not be likely to give honest answers due to concerns about being fired. The possibility of affecting the responses of each other is stated as well.
The relationship between mobbing and depression was examined by the Spearman correlation coefficient technique. It was found that there is a positive correlation between mobbing and depression (r = 0.384, p < 0.05). As a result of the regression analysis, the mobbing variable with a ß value of 0.327 affected depression positively. The change of 14% in depression was explained by mobbing variable. Besides, mobbing variable affected at most the level of conceptual depression positively and relatively to the other dimensions of depression. As a conclusion, changes of 8%, 5%, and 3% in conceptual, somatic, and cognitive depression, respectively, are explained by the mobbing variable included in the model. When the relationship between mobbing and depression was examined in the study of Akkoca et al., medium and advanced levels of depression were detected in the students who were exposed to mobbing [119].
Even though the students who are exposed to mobbing have to find ways to deal with their situation and cope with such situations on their own, educational organizations should also make an effort to resolve the problem. It is of utmost importance that universities and academic units are concerned and anxious about the effects of bullying on the welfare and productivity of the faculty [120]. Educational organizations should be evaluated in terms of the potential events [121]. It is important to create awareness and to make students and management of the school more be familiar with the administrative and academic mobbing and its consequences so as to prevent mobbing. By doing so, managers and faculty members may be aware of students who are more vulnerable to harassment [120]. In this context, members of the organization who do not know the ways of the fighting against mobbing should be trained. By this means, it is will be ensured that tutors and department heads have the fundamental knowledge of the issues of witnessing, reporting, and responding to academic mobbing [122]. Further research should be carried out through the longitudinal research design and specific case studies. In this way, more in-depth information can be obtained about the sophisticated phenomenon of academic mobbing, its consequences on the victim, and effective coping strategies for victims and organizations [69].
Mobbing and depression should be considered as an organizational and corporate risk factor. In the following process, it is necessary to reduce this risk element to an acceptable level by developing effective controls in the level of management and employees [123]. Educational organizations play an important role in the training of human resources, being one of the most important capital components in achieving the objectives and targets of enterprises or businesses. Executive Boards of Universities should help develop a cultural and civilized environment. Therefore, they must focus on reducing academic mobbing cases [70]. Determining the levels of mobbing and depression, which are considered as organizational risk factors in the process of determining the career goals of the students, is of great importance. Since the students are in the educational organizations in the pre-business period, such a focus will provide important contributions in enhancing organizational and individual performance.
The sustainable tourism education model that is expressed in this study is shown in Figure 2.
In order for tourism to be sustainable, the expectations of supply (local people, environment, business administration, employees, natural resources, etc.) and demand (tourist) parties must be met at an optimal level. Tourism education needs to be provided within the framework of the consciousness concerning sustainability so as to maintain high quality services provided in supply side. It is important for tourism students and graduates to participate in their education activities in their professional careers throughout their lives, within the context of sustainable tourism and education. As it is known, the diagnosis of the disease is of crucial importance in the prevention and treatment of any disease. Besides, knowing the characteristics of patients affects the success positively during and after the treatment. The same treatment method cannot be applied to each patient for a specific disease, since the patient characteristics are different. Similarly, different educational methods and practices should be developed for the sustainable tourism education according to the individual characteristics of the students. Sustainable education, described by healthy life and disease metaphors, is a proactive process which ensures that educational problems are eliminated before they occur. For this reason, a differentiated tourism education in a suitable physical and social environment according to personal characteristics might have positive outcomes. By this means, measures against mobbing might be taken. As a result, students might be prevented from depression experienced due to mobbing.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization and Resources: Z.A.; Methodology and Formal analysis: G.Y.; and Software and Data curation: Y.E.

Funding

This research received no external funding.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Figure 1. Research model.
Figure 1. Research model.
Sustainability 10 03418 g001
Figure 2. Sustainable tourism education.
Figure 2. Sustainable tourism education.
Sustainability 10 03418 g002
Table 1. Factor analysis of depression scale.
Table 1. Factor analysis of depression scale.
VariablesItemsFactor LoadingsFactor ValiditiesFactor Variances
Conceptual1. Sadness0.7390.7930.110
2. Pessimism0.750
4. Dissatisfaction0.740
7. Self-dislike0.691
16. Indecisiveness0.656
Somatic10. Loss of Appetite0.8210.6817.318
11. Loss of Weight0.882
Cognitive8. Self-blame0.6610.4015.494
21. Lack of Interest in Sex0.837
KMO:0.820Total Variance Exp. 62.922
p: 0.000 (Barlett’s Test)
Table 2. Correlations between the factors, construct reliability, and average variance explained.
Table 2. Correlations between the factors, construct reliability, and average variance explained.
Factor 1Factor 2Factor 3CRAVE
Factor 11 0.8370.508
Factor 20.301 **1 0.8390.723
Factor 30.393 **0.218 **10.7170.562
** p < 0.01.
Table 3. Mobbing perception differences between students (Type A-Type B).
Table 3. Mobbing perception differences between students (Type A-Type B).
N x ¯   Standard Deviationtdfp
B type personality2241.30850.43012−3.0895220.002
A type personality3001.45010.57633522.000
Table 4. Depression Perception Differences of Between Students (Type A-Type B).
Table 4. Depression Perception Differences of Between Students (Type A-Type B).
N x ¯   Standard Deviationtdfp
B type personality2241.44470.39266−4.0335220.000
A type personality3001.60070.46915515.198
Table 5. Mobbing and depression correlation matrix.
Table 5. Mobbing and depression correlation matrix.
NMeanSd.Min.Max.MobbingDepression
Mobbing5241.38960.523161.005.001
Depression5241.53400.444461.003.860.384 **1
0.000
** Correlation is significant in 0.01 level (two-tailed).
Table 6. Effect of mobbing on depression.
Table 6. Effect of mobbing on depression.
Dependent VariableIndependent VariableCoefficienttFR2p
ßS.E
DepressionConstant10800.05121.19590.5570.1480.000
Mobbing0.3270.0349.516
Table 7. Effect of mobbing on the dimensions of depression.
Table 7. Effect of mobbing on the dimensions of depression.
Dependent VariableIndependent VariableCoefficienttFR2p
ßStd.Error
ConceptualConstant10.1020.06616.57351.0170.0890.000
Mobbing0.3200.0457.143
SomaticConstant10.0220.07912.93430.2740.0550.000
Mobbing0.2930.0535.502
CognitiveConstant10.1960.07815.36519.7520.0360.000
Mobbing0.2330.0524.444

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