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On the Sustainability and Progress of Energy Neutral Mineral Processing

International Atomic Energy Agency, VIC, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna, Austria
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva 1200, Switzerland
National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Av. del Libertador 8250, C1429BNP CABA, Argentina
Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Nuclear Materials Authority, El-Maadi-Kattamiya Road, P.O. Box 530, Cairo 11311, Egypt
BriVa Tech Consulting, Andreas Sapper Str. 15, 91334 Hemhofen, Germany
Institute for Reactor Safety and Reactor Technology, RWTH Aachen University, Kackertstr. 9, 52072 Aachen, Germany
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, AMD Complex, Begumpet, Hyderabad 500016, India
National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Jalan Lebak Bulus Raya No. 9, Jakarta 12440, Indonesia
Radiation Protection Department, P.O. Box, Sharq Al-Qadeseyah 16087, Kuwait
Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, Kajang 43000, Malaysia
Centre National de l’Énergie, des Sciences et des Technique Nucléaires, B.P. 1382, Route Principale, 10001 Rabat, Morocco
Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 734, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan
Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, P.O. Box 213, 1101 Quezon City, Philippines
Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, Warsaw 00-019, Poland
Groupe Chimique Tunisien, Direction de Recherches, Gabes 6000, Tunisia
Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 743, Arusha 0206, Tanzania
Universidad Simon Bolivar, P.O. Box 89000, 1080A Caracas, Venezuela
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2018, 10(1), 235;
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 28 December 2017 / Accepted: 10 January 2018 / Published: 17 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuclear Waste Management and Sustainability of Nuclear Systems)
A number of primary ores such as phosphate rock, gold-, copper- and rare earth ores contain considerable amounts of accompanying uranium and other critical materials. Energy neutral mineral processing is the extraction of unconventional uranium during primary ore processing to use it, after enrichment and fuel production, to generate greenhouse gas lean energy in a nuclear reactor. Energy neutrality is reached if the energy produced from the extracted uranium is equal to or larger than the energy required for primary ore processing, uranium extraction, -conversion, -enrichment and -fuel production. This work discusses the sustainability of energy neutral mineral processing and provides an overview of the current progress of a multinational research project on that topic conducted under the umbrella of the International Atomic Energy Agency. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy neutral mineral processing; unconventional uranium extraction; comprehensive extraction; high temperature reactors energy neutral mineral processing; unconventional uranium extraction; comprehensive extraction; high temperature reactors
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Reitsma, F.; Woods, P.; Fairclough, M.; Kim, Y.; Tulsidas, H.; Lopez, L.; Zheng, Y.; Hussein, A.; Brinkmann, G.; Haneklaus, N.; Kacham, A.R.; Sreenivas, T.; Sumaryanto, A.; Trinopiawan, K.; Al Khaledi, N.; Zahari, A.; El Yahyaoui, A.; Ahmad, J.; Reyes, R.; Kiegiel, K.; Abbes, N.; Mwalongo, D.; Greaves, E.D. On the Sustainability and Progress of Energy Neutral Mineral Processing. Sustainability 2018, 10, 235.

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