Next Article in Journal
Quality of Life (QoL) among Health Care Workers with Diabetes Mellitus: A Literature Review
Previous Article in Journal
Significant Leukocytosis with Hypereosinophilia Secondary to Trichuris trichiura in Adult: A Case Report
Article

Plasmatic Magnesium Deficiency in 101 Outpatients Living with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

1
Department of Nutrition, Metabolic Diseases and Diabetology, The National Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology of Tunis, Tunis 1007, Tunisia
2
Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, University Tunis El Manar, Tunis 1007, Tunisia
3
Department of Infectious Diseases, Nord Franche-Comté Hospital, 90400 Trevenans, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Clin. Pract. 2021, 11(4), 791-800; https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11040095
Received: 21 September 2021 / Revised: 18 October 2021 / Accepted: 21 October 2021 / Published: 27 October 2021
(1) Background: Magnesium deficiency is usually associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Individuals living with T2DM with hypomagnesemia show a more rapid disease progression and have an increased risk for diabetes complications. (2) Methods: This is a cross-sectional and descriptive study in the National Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology of Tunis in Tunisia, including all adult outpatients (≥18 years old) with a diagnosis of T2DM from 1 September 2018 to 31 August 2019. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of plasmatic magnesium deficiency in a Tunisian population of T2DM and to study the relationship between magnesium status and intake, glycemic control and long-term diabetes-related complications. (3) Results: Among the 101 T2DM outpatients, 13 (12.9%) presented with a plasmatic magnesium deficiency. The mean age was 56 ± 7.9 years with a female predominance (62%, n = 63). The mean of the plasmatic magnesium level was 0.79 ± 0.11 mmol/L (0.5–1.1), and the mean of 24 h urinary magnesium excretion was 87.8 ± 53.8 mg/24 h [4.8–486.2]. HbA1c was significantly higher in the plasmatic magnesium deficiency group than the normal magnesium status group (10% ± 1.3 vs. 8.3% ± 1.9; p = 0.04), with a significant difference in participants with a poor glycemic control (HbA1c > 7%) (100%, n = 13/13 vs. 53%, n = 47/88; p = 0.001). A weak negative relationship was also found between plasmatic magnesium and HbA1c (r = −0.2, p = 0.03). Peripheral artery disease was more commonly described in individuals with low plasmatic magnesium levels than in individuals with normal levels (39%, n = 5 vs. 0%, n = 0; p < 0.001). The mean plasmatic magnesium level in participants without diabetic nephropathy and also peripheral artery disease was significantly higher compared to individuals with each long-term diabetes-related complication (0.8 mmol/L ± 0.1 vs. 0.71 mmol/L ± 0.07; p = 0.006) and (0.8 mmol/L ± 0.1 vs. 0.6 mmol/L ± 0.08; p < 0.001), respectively. (4) Conclusions: Hypomagnesemia was identified in individuals with T2DM, causing poor glycemic control and contributing to the development and progression of diabetes-related microvascular and macrovascular complications. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 2 diabetes; magnesium deficiency; glycemic control; diabetes complications type 2 diabetes; magnesium deficiency; glycemic control; diabetes complications
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zahra, H.; Berriche, O.; Mizouri, R.; Boukhayatia, F.; Khiari, M.; Gamoudi, A.; Lahmar, I.; Ben Amor, N.; Mahjoub, F.; Zayet, S.; Jamoussi, H. Plasmatic Magnesium Deficiency in 101 Outpatients Living with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Clin. Pract. 2021, 11, 791-800. https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11040095

AMA Style

Zahra H, Berriche O, Mizouri R, Boukhayatia F, Khiari M, Gamoudi A, Lahmar I, Ben Amor N, Mahjoub F, Zayet S, Jamoussi H. Plasmatic Magnesium Deficiency in 101 Outpatients Living with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Clinics and Practice. 2021; 11(4):791-800. https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11040095

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zahra, Hajer, Olfa Berriche, Ramla Mizouri, Fatma Boukhayatia, Marwa Khiari, Amel Gamoudi, Ines Lahmar, Nadia Ben Amor, Faten Mahjoub, Souheil Zayet, and Henda Jamoussi. 2021. "Plasmatic Magnesium Deficiency in 101 Outpatients Living with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus" Clinics and Practice 11, no. 4: 791-800. https://doi.org/10.3390/clinpract11040095

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop