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Infectious Disease Reports is published by MDPI from Volume 12 Issue 3 (2020). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with PAGEPress.

Infect. Dis. Rep., Volume 11, Issue 2 (September 2019) – 3 articles

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Review
Present and Future of Siderophore-Based Therapeutic and Diagnostic Approaches in Infectious Diseases
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2019, 11(2), 30-36; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2019.8208 - 01 Oct 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 322
Abstract
Iron is an essential micronutrient required for the growth of almost all aerobic organisms; the iron uptake pathway in bacteria therefore represents a possible target for novel antimicrobials, including hybrids between antimicrobials and siderophores. Siderophores are low molecular weight iron chelators that bind [...] Read more.
Iron is an essential micronutrient required for the growth of almost all aerobic organisms; the iron uptake pathway in bacteria therefore represents a possible target for novel antimicrobials, including hybrids between antimicrobials and siderophores. Siderophores are low molecular weight iron chelators that bind to iron and are actively transported inside the cell through specific binding protein complexes. These binding protein complexes are present both in Gram negative bacteria, in their outer and inner membrane, and in Gram positive bacteria in their cytoplasmic membrane. Most bacteria have the ability to produce siderophores in order to survive in environments with limited concentrations of free iron, however some bacteria synthetize natural siderophore-antibiotic conjugates that exploit the siderophore-iron uptake pathway to deliver antibiotics into competing bacterial cells and gain a competitive advantage. This approach has been referred to as a Trojan Horse Strategy. To overcome the increasing global problem of antibiotic resistance in Gram negative bacteria, which often have reduced outer membrane permeability, siderophore-antibiotic hybrid conjugates have been synthetized in vitro. Cefiderocol is the first siderophore-antibiotic conjugate that progressed to late stage clinical development so far. In studies on murine models the iron-siderophore uptake pathway has been also exploited for diagnostic imaging of infectious diseases, in which labelled siderophores have been used as specific probes. The aim of this review is to describe the research progress in the field of siderophore-based therapeutic and diagnostic approaches in infectious diseases. Full article
Case Report
A Case of Mycobacterium goodii Infection Related to an Indwelling Catheter Placed for the Treatment of Chronic Symptoms Attributed to Lyme Disease
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2019, 11(2), 26-29; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2019.8108 - 18 Sep 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 281
Abstract
Mycobacterium goodii has only rarely been reported to cause invasive disease in humans. Previously reported cases of M. goodii infection have included prosthetic joint infections, pacemaker pocket infections, and pneumonia. We present a case of bacteremia with concomitant pulmonary septic emboli that developed [...] Read more.
Mycobacterium goodii has only rarely been reported to cause invasive disease in humans. Previously reported cases of M. goodii infection have included prosthetic joint infections, pacemaker pocket infections, and pneumonia. We present a case of bacteremia with concomitant pulmonary septic emboli that developed in a 32-year-old woman with an indwelling central line. The line had been placed one year previously for intermittent treatment with intravenous, broad-spectrum antibiotics, administered by an outside physician for the treatment of symptoms attributed to chronic Lyme disease. The long duration of antibiotic use and presence of a central venous catheter predisposed the patient to this infection. Patients should be counseled regarding the serious risks of long courses of broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics via central venous catheters to treat non-specific symptoms attributed to Lyme disease. Full article
Article
Janibacter Species with Evidence of Genomic Polymorphism Isolated from Resected Heart Valve in a Patient with Aortic Stenosis
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2019, 11(2), 22-25; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2019.8132 - 18 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 208
Abstract
The authors report isolation and identification of two strains of bacteria belonging to the genus Janibacter from a human patient with aortic stenosis from a rural area of the country of Georgia. The microorganisms were isolated from aortic heart valve. Two isolates with [...] Read more.
The authors report isolation and identification of two strains of bacteria belonging to the genus Janibacter from a human patient with aortic stenosis from a rural area of the country of Georgia. The microorganisms were isolated from aortic heart valve. Two isolates with slightly distinct colony morphologies were harvested after sub-culturing from an original agar plate. Preliminary identification of the isolates is based on amplification and sequencing of a fragment of 16SrRNA. Whole genome sequencing was performed using the Illumina MiSeq instrument. Both isolates were identified as undistinguished strains of the genus Janibacter. Characterization of whole genome sequences of each culture has revealed a 15% difference in gene profile between the cultures and confirmed that both strains belong to the genus Janibacter with the closest match to J. terrae. Genomic comparison of cultures of Janibacter obtained from human cases and from environmental sources presents a promising direction for evaluating a role of these bacteria as human pathogens. Full article
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