Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging global health emergency caused by the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The global outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection has been declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). The clinical presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection depends on the severity of the disease and may range from an asymptomatic infection to a severe and lethal illness. Fever, cough, and shortness of breath are among the most common symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Accumulating evidence indicates that COVID-19 patients commonly develop neurological symptoms, such as headache, altered mental status, anosmia, and myalgia. In this comprehensive literature review, we have summarized the most common neurological complications and reported neurological case studies associated with COVID-19, and neurological side effects associated with COVID-19 treatments. Additionally, the post-acute COVID-19 syndrome and long-term neurological complications were discussed. We also explained the proposed mechanisms that are involved in the pathogenesis of these neurological complications.
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