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World Electric Vehicle Journal is published by MDPI from Volume 9 issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by The World Electric Vehicle Association (WEVA) and its member the European Association for e-Mobility (AVERE), the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), and the Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific (EVAAP). They are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with AVERE.
Open AccessArticle

Electrical safety of commercial Li-ion cells based on NMC and NCA technology compared to LFP technology

Inst. for Electrical Energy Storage Technology, TUM, Karlstr. 45, 80333 Munich, Germany
TÜV SÜD Battery Testing GmbH, Daimlerstr. 15, 85748 Garching, Germany
TUM Create,1 CREATE Way, #10-02, 138602 Singapore
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6(3), 572-580;
Published: 27 September 2013
PDF [612 KB, uploaded 18 May 2018]


Since a laptop caught fire in 2006 at the latest, Li-ion cells were considered as more dangerous than other accumulators [1]. Recent incidents, such as the one involving a BYD e6 electric taxi [2] or the Boeing Dreamliner [3], give rise to questions concerning the safety of L#i-ion cells. This is a crucial point, since Li-ion cells are increasingly integrated in all kinds of (electric) vehicles. Therefore the economic success of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) depends significantly on the safety of Li-ion cells. Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) and lithium nickel cobalt aluminium oxide (NCA) are two standard Li-ion cathode chemistries, which are often used for today’s HEVs and BEVs Li-ion batteries. Cells with this two cathode technologies are investigated in detail and compared to cells with the alleged save lithium iron phosphate (LFP) technology. Furthermore only commercially available and mass produced Li-ion cells were tested, in order to get as close to real end-user applications as possible. To ensure comparability, cells with the most common 18650 casing have been used. Furthermore all cells had no built-in resistor with positive temperature coefficient (PTC-device). For each abuse test at least 2 cells have been tested to get to know the statistical dispersion. The spread was in all tests for all measured values of each cell type lower than 11 %. Consequently it can be supposed, that mass produced cells show equal behaviour also in abusive test. The performed electrical safety tests on these cells, involve overcharge, overdischarge and short circuit tests. These tests represent real abuse scenarios and are geared to established standards [15], [16], [17], [18]. To complete these measurements an accelerated rate calorimetry (ARC) test has been carried out, to determine the thermal stability of the cells. As in the literature discussed, the investigated LFP/C cells show a higher thermal stability and are therefore safer, although they do not have any overcharge buffer as the investigated NCA/C and NMC/C cells.
Keywords: battery; lithium battery; safety; reliability; short circuit; materials battery; lithium battery; safety; reliability; short circuit; materials
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Brand, M.; Gläser, S.; Geder, J.; Menacher, S.; Obpacher, S.; Jossen, A.; Quinger, D. Electrical safety of commercial Li-ion cells based on NMC and NCA technology compared to LFP technology. World Electr. Veh. J. 2013, 6, 572-580.

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World Electr. Veh. J. EISSN 2032-6653 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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