Analysis, Design and Realization of a Wireless Power Transfer Charger for Electric Vehicles: Theoretical Approach and Experimental Results
Abstract
:1. Introduction
2. Analysis of Series–Series Compensated WPT Charger
2.1. Effect of the Compensation Network on the Efficiency of the WPT Charger
2.2. Effect of the Coupling Coefficient on the Power Transfer Efficiency
2.3. Bifurcation Phenomenon in a WPT Charger
2.4. Effect of the Load Variations on the Power Transfer Efficiency
2.5. Effect of the DC Side and Battery Voltages on the Power Transfer
3. Design Steps of WPT Charger
3.1. Step 1: Choice of Ground and VehicleSide Converter Technology
3.2. Step 2: Choice of Control and Communication Boards
3.3. Step 3: Design of Ground and VehicleSide Coils
3.3.1. Conductor Wire Choice for Making Coils
3.3.2. Coil Geometry Choice
3.3.3. Coil Inductance Calculation
3.3.4. Choice of Parameters, Simulation and Realization of Coils
 Coil geometry 1 (hereinafter Coil1): this is the geometry of the groundside coil. Its outer diameter is set to 48 cm. This choice is justified by the fact that the height of the created magnetic flux is approximately 1/4 of the outer diameter of the coil [23]. With this choice, for a nominal air gap of 12 cm, the coupling between the coils is ensured.
 Coil geometry 2 (hereinafter Coil2): this is the first geometry adopted for the coil on the vehicle side. Its outer diameter is set to 30 cm. The main reason for choosing a smaller diameter is to allow the vehicleside coil to remain in the area covered by the groundside coil even in the presence of misalignments.
 Coil geometry 3 (hereinafter Coil3): this is the second geometry adopted for the coil on the vehicle side. Its outer diameter is set to be the same as that of the groundside coil (48 cm). This choice is justified assuming that the two coils must have the same external diameter so that all of the magnetic field created by the coil on the ground side will be captured by the one on the vehicle side.
3.4. Step 4: Design of Ground and VehicleSide Compensation Boards
4. Experimental Results
4.1. Test of the Realized Coils
 Scenario 1: The coils are perfectly aligned and spaced from each other with a distance of ΔZ = 12 cm. In this case, a power of 300W is transferred from the ground side to the vehicle side; thus, the obtained power transfer efficiency is 95% for the pair of coils Coil1–Coil2, while that of Coil1–Coil3 is 89.5%.
 Scenario 2: The coils are laterally misaligned in both directions (ΔX = 7 cm and ΔY = 10 cm) while the air gap between the coils is maintained at ΔZ = 12 cm. In this case, a power of 500 W is transferred from the ground side to the vehicle side; thus, the obtained power transfer efficiency is 89% for the pair of coils Coil1–Coil2, while that of Coil1–Coil3 is 78%.
 Case 3: The air gap is maintained at its maximum (ΔZ = 15 cm) and the coils are misaligned in both directions (ΔX = 7 cm and ΔY = 10 cm). In this case, a power of 900 W is transferred from the ground side to the vehicle side; thus, the obtained power transfer efficiency is 83.5% for the pair of coils Coil1–Coil2, while that of Coil1–Coil3 is 72%.
4.2. Effect of Variation of DC Side Voltage on Power Transfer
4.3. Effect Misalignments on Power Transfer
5. Conclusions
Author Contributions
Funding
Data Availability Statement
Acknowledgments
Conflicts of Interest
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Parameter  Value 

R_{eq}  12 Ω 
L_{1}  416 µH 
L_{2}  116 µH 
r_{1}  0.5 Ω 
r_{2}  0.1 Ω 
Parameter  Value 

Power (P)  500 W 
Maximum DC side voltage (Vdc)  300 V 
Nominal battery voltage (Vb)  48 V 
Power transfer frequency (f_{sw})  85 kHz 
Minimum efficiency (in presence of misalignments)  80% 
Required mutual inductance (M)  44 µH 
Airgap distance  100–150 mm 
Coil1  Coil2  Coil3 




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Bentalhik, I.; Lassioui, A.; EL Fadil, H.; Bouanou, T.; Rachid, A.; EL Idrissi, Z.; Hamed, A.M. Analysis, Design and Realization of a Wireless Power Transfer Charger for Electric Vehicles: Theoretical Approach and Experimental Results. World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13, 121. https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13070121
Bentalhik I, Lassioui A, EL Fadil H, Bouanou T, Rachid A, EL Idrissi Z, Hamed AM. Analysis, Design and Realization of a Wireless Power Transfer Charger for Electric Vehicles: Theoretical Approach and Experimental Results. World Electric Vehicle Journal. 2022; 13(7):121. https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13070121
Chicago/Turabian StyleBentalhik, Issam, Abdellah Lassioui, Hassan EL Fadil, Tasnime Bouanou, Aziz Rachid, Zakariae EL Idrissi, and Ahmed Mohamed Hamed. 2022. "Analysis, Design and Realization of a Wireless Power Transfer Charger for Electric Vehicles: Theoretical Approach and Experimental Results" World Electric Vehicle Journal 13, no. 7: 121. https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13070121