# Effect of Different Types of Electric Drive Units on the Energy Consumption of Heavy Commercial Electric Vehicles

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Methodology

#### 2.1. Multispeed Electric Drive Unit

#### 2.2. Multimode Electric Drive Unit

#### 2.3. Transmission Gear Ratio

#### 2.4. Driving Cycle

#### 2.5. Longitudinal Vehicle Model Development

_{r}is the rolling resistance force, F

_{g}is the gradeability force, F

_{a}is the air resistance force, and F

_{ac}is the acceleration force of the vehicle and its rotating parts.

_{f}is the frontal area of a vehicle, C

_{D}is the aerodynamic drag coefficient, v is vehicle speed, v

_{w}is wind speed, g is gravitational acceleration, M is gross vehicle weight (GVW), and f

_{r}is the rolling resistance coefficient. A vehicle longitudinal model was developed based on these formulas, and vehicle parameters were defined for use in the simulations (Table 4).

_{t}can be derived from the Kirchhoff law as a function of current load I

_{L}[26] as follows:

_{OC}, R

_{O}, R

_{1,}and C

_{1}are defined as functions of battery SoC. The output of the model is battery terminal voltage and current, which are obtained from Equations (7) and (8) [26].

_{cell}. After that, the current for a single cell I

_{cell}is determined as shown in Equation (9) [26]. Then, SoC is determined using Equation (10), where SoC is the state of battery charge, SoC

_{0}is the initial state of charge in percentage, C

_{cell}is the single-cell capacity, and I

_{cell,dem}is the single-cell current demand in (A).

## 3. Results and Discussion

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## Appendix A

**Figure A1.**EM operating points of 2-speed EDU for (

**a**) municipal, (

**b**) intercity, and (

**c**) regional routes.

**Figure A2.**EM operating points of 2-mode EDU for (

**a**) municipal, (

**b**) intercity, and (

**c**) regional routes.

**Figure A3.**EM operating points of 4-speed EDU for (

**a**) municipal, (

**b**) intercity, and (

**c**) regional routes.

**Figure A4.**EM operating points of 4-mode EDU for (

**a**) municipal, (

**b**) intercity, and (

**c**) regional routes.

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**Figure 4.**Collected road data: (

**a**) route 1: municipal area; (

**b**) route 2: intercity area; (

**c**) route 3: regional area.

**Figure 5.**(

**a**) Efficiency map and (

**b**) torque–power curves for BorgWarner HCH250-115 DOM electric motor.

**Figure 12.**Vehicle performance curves for (

**a**) 2-speed EDU, (

**b**) 2-mode EDU, (

**c**) 3-speed EDU, (

**d**) 3-mode EDU, (

**e**) 4-speed EDU, and (

**f**) 4-mode EDU.

Gears | Clutch A | Clutch B | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Left | Neutral | Right | Left | Neutral | Right | |

Gear 1 (60–48) * | X | X | ||||

Gear 2 (60–16) | X | X | ||||

Gear 3 (19–16) * | X | X |

Gears | Clutch A | Clutch B | Clutch C | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Left | Neutral | Right | Left | Neutral | Right | Left | Neutral | Right | |

Gear 1 (58–48) | X | X | X | ||||||

Gear 2 (58–30) | X | X | |||||||

Gear 3 (30–24) | X | X | |||||||

Gear 4 (30–16) | X | X | X |

EDUs/Gears | Gear 1 | Gear 2 | Gear 3 | Gear 4 | Gear 5 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

2-speed EDU | 58 | 18 | - | - | - |

2-mode EDU | 60 | 48 | 19 | 16 | - |

3-speed EDU | 58 | 30.3 | 18 | - | - |

3-mode EDU | 60 | 48 | 19 | 16 | - |

4-speed EDU | 58 | 42 | 30.3 | 18 | - |

4-mode EDU | 58 | 48 | 30 | 24 | 16 |

Parameters | Symbol | Value | Unit |
---|---|---|---|

GVW | M | kg | |

Aerodynamic coefficient | C_{D} | 0.8 | - |

Frontal area | A_{f} | 10.3 | m^{2} |

Rolling resistance coefficient | f_{r} | 0.01 | - |

Gravitational acceleration | g | 9.81 | m/s^{2} |

Air density | ρ_{a} | 1.275 | kg/m^{3} |

Performance Specifications | Value |
---|---|

Launch grade | 30% |

Top speed | 110 km/h |

Speed @ 5% grade | 55 km/h |

Speed @ 10% grade | 35 km/h |

EDU Types | Route 1 | Route 2 | Route 3 | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Energy Consumption (kWh) | Mileage (km) | Energy Consumption (kWh) | Mileage (km) | Energy Consumption (kWh) | Mileage (km) | |

2-speed EDU | 192.19 | 150 | 276.57 | 220 | 77.72 | 56.6 |

2-mode EDU | 207.24 | 150 | 303.98 | 220 | 84.29 | 56.6 |

3-speed EDU | 179.60 | 150 | 278.12 | 220 | 70.71 | 56.6 |

3-mode EDU | 193.66 | 150 | 298.32 | 220 | 75.81 | 56.6 |

4-Speed EDU | 169.90 | 150 | 262.84 | 220 | 64.56 | 56.6 |

4-mode EDU | 190.58 | 150 | 294.44 | 220 | 72.84 | 56.6 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Yildirim, M.; Kurt, S.
Effect of Different Types of Electric Drive Units on the Energy Consumption of Heavy Commercial Electric Vehicles. *World Electr. Veh. J.* **2022**, *13*, 92.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13050092

**AMA Style**

Yildirim M, Kurt S.
Effect of Different Types of Electric Drive Units on the Energy Consumption of Heavy Commercial Electric Vehicles. *World Electric Vehicle Journal*. 2022; 13(5):92.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13050092

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Yildirim, Metin, and Serpil Kurt.
2022. "Effect of Different Types of Electric Drive Units on the Energy Consumption of Heavy Commercial Electric Vehicles" *World Electric Vehicle Journal* 13, no. 5: 92.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13050092