# Bidirectional Converter for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle On-Board Battery Chargers with Hybrid Technique

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

- A novel technique called NN–IPSO is proposed to determine the best suitable converter topology for battery charger management.
- The stability of the system is improved using NN–IPSO, which interfaces the battery with an isolated converter topology.

## 2. Literature Review

#### Summary

## 3. Proposed Method

#### 3.1. Setup of the Bidirectional Converter

- Integration of the traction inverter with the charging system.
- Integration of the charging system detector with the motor winding inductance, considerably decreasing the system’s mass. Furthermore, it has little effect on the rotor-side converter or the operation of common EV motors.
- The capacity to block faults in both directions.
- The ability to recharge at lower or higher voltages than the voltage supply.
- The circuit illustration of the isolated converter is displayed in Figure 1.

- Whenever the signal is high, the switches S
_{1}and S_{2}are continuously activated; whenever the voltage is low, the switches S_{1}, and S_{2}are switched off. - This switching method allows the propagation of the antiparallel transistors of the switching devices relating to phase.
- Similarly, whenever the signal is high, switches S
_{3}and S_{4}should be engaged; whenever the voltage is low, switches S_{3}and S_{4}should be shifted to off; switches S_{5}and S_{6}should always be triggered whenever the signal is high; and switches S_{5}and S_{6}should always be switched off if the voltage is low. - The remaining switches have a 50% duty cycle and a constant current. Only when the topmost bidirectional switch of a half-bridge is fully triggered (with j = 1, 3, or 5), and the voltage of the cycle linked is optimistic, is the voltage level at the winding also optimistic.
- When the bottom switch (with k = 2, 4, or 6) is fully triggered under identical conditions, the voltage is zero. If the phase voltage is low, the direction of the voltage is the aspect of the voltage in the previous circumstances.
- Whenever the topmost switch on every limb of the converter is active, the signal applied to the respective winding is also high, and whenever the bottom switch is triggered, it is negligible. If another minimum or maximum switch is turned on at the same time, the voltage supplied to the associated windings is zero. The PHEV uses a battery with a voltage range of 200 V–400 V.

#### 3.2. Block Diagram of the Proposed Method

#### 3.3. NN Process

#### 3.3.1. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)

#### 3.3.2. Improved PSO Parameters

- The NN reduces the computational requirements of the modulation technique and makes the implementation faster.
- The duty cycle of the PWM signal is independent of the carrier signal voltages and frequencies.
- For the training process, the NN obtains the input voltage, capacitors [32], and load demand.
- After receiving the input, the NN generates an output voltage whose value corresponds to the duty cycle of the PWM signal input. The inverse proportionality principle states that if an inverter receives a periodic input signal—such as a clock—its average output voltage will be inversely proportional to the input signal’s duty cycle.
- If the condition is YES, the NN obtains the reference vector’s amplitude and angle to determine the duty cycles of various space vectors that can be utilized to create PWM pulses to drive the converter.
- If the condition is NO, the duty cycle of the input signal is once again processed in the training section to update the duty cycle value.
- The output duty cycle of the NN is given as input to IPSO to update the velocity and position.
- While evaluating the fitness values of IPSO, the duty cycle value is updated, and is given as the switching pulse for the converter.

#### 3.3.3. Steps for Generating the Switching Pulse

- For a particular modulation index, NN–IPSO has been effectively applied in electronic systems circuitry to produce the appropriate switching frequency of a PWM inverter.
- It accepts the standard vector’s magnitude and position to estimate the duty cycles of multiple space vectors in industrial domains that can be used to generate PWM pulses for conversion operation.
- The amplitude of the output voltage is minimally affected by even substantial departures from the ideal switching pattern. Since notch angles continue to coincide, this is a useful characteristic.
- As a result, the Neural Network’s converter may only be designed to reliably recreate the ideal switching angles within the modulation index range from 0 to 0.95.
- The inverter must be adjusted to vary the size and frequency of the AC output voltage, because the DC bus voltage must be constant.
- The analysis of the two voltage waveforms is the fundamental premise of PWM—a changeable voltage with the same frequencies as the inverter, known as the reference voltage, and a high-frequency signal with a triangular waveform, known as the carrier voltage.
- The amplitude of the triangular carrier waveform is fixed. The reference constant valuation magnitude can be modified.
- The inverter output frequency is just like the standard square wave; the standard wave frequency can be changed to modify the inverter output frequencies. The entire switching frequency is still substantial in the PWM output waveform.
- The number of pulses used every half-cycle determines the sequence of harmonics in the PWM waveform.
- PWM provides more capability in terms of THD reduction, dimension and cost savings, and extra operational characteristics of the inverter, including active filtering and reactive power management.

## 4. Results and Discussion

#### Comparative Analysis

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 5.**Performance analysis of voltage, SOC, and current waveforms for the Neural Network–Improved Particle Swarm Optimization (NN–IPSO) controller.

Components | Ratings |
---|---|

Battery voltage | $230$ |

Capacitance C_{1}, C_{2}Inductance L _{1}, L_{2} | $220\mathrm{mF}$ $47\mathrm{mH}$ |

DC voltage | $260$ |

Flux linkage | $0.6{\mathrm{V}}_{\mathrm{s}}$ |

Resistance | $95\mathrm{m}\Omega $ |

Rotational friction coefficient | $0.1\mathrm{Nms}/\mathrm{rad}$ |

Rotational inertia | $0.767\mathrm{kgm}$ |

Switching frequency | $10\mathrm{kHz}$ |

Isolated Topology | THD % | Efficiency % | Power Loss (KW) |
---|---|---|---|

PSO controller | 7.28 | 94.10 | 0.163 |

IPSO controller | 6.13 | 95.12 | 0.129 |

NN controller | 5.42 | 97.38 | 0.105 |

NN–PSO controller | 4.46 | 99.81 | 0.091 |

Proposed NN–IPSO controller | 3.69 | 99.89 | 0.083 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Anjinappa, G.; Prabhakar, D.B.; Lai, W.-C.
Bidirectional Converter for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle On-Board Battery Chargers with Hybrid Technique. *World Electr. Veh. J.* **2022**, *13*, 196.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13110196

**AMA Style**

Anjinappa G, Prabhakar DB, Lai W-C.
Bidirectional Converter for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle On-Board Battery Chargers with Hybrid Technique. *World Electric Vehicle Journal*. 2022; 13(11):196.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13110196

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Anjinappa, Gopinath, Divakar Bangalore Prabhakar, and Wen-Cheng Lai.
2022. "Bidirectional Converter for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle On-Board Battery Chargers with Hybrid Technique" *World Electric Vehicle Journal* 13, no. 11: 196.
https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13110196