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Article

Electrification of Urban Waste Collection: Introducing a Simulation-Based Methodology for Technical Feasibility, Impact and Cost Analysis

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Chair of Transport Systems Planning and Transport Telematics, Technische Universität Berlin, Salzufer 17-19, 10587 Berlin, Germany
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Chair of Methods for Product Development and Mechatronics, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ching-Ming Lai and Joeri Van Mierlo
World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12(3), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12030122
Received: 23 June 2021 / Revised: 4 August 2021 / Accepted: 13 August 2021 / Published: 17 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicles Integrated with Green Energy Sources)
Electrification is a potential solution for transport decarbonization and already widely available for individual and public transport. However, the availability of electrified commercial vehicles like waste collection vehicles is still limited, despite their significant contribution to urban emissions. Moreover, there is a lack of clarity whether electric waste collection vehicles can persist in real world conditions and which system design is required. Therefore, we introduce a multi-agent-based simulation methodology to investigate the technical feasibility and evaluate environmental and economic sustainability of an electrified urban waste collection. We present a synthetic model for waste collection demand on a per-link basis, using open available data. The tour planning is solved by an open-source algorithm as a capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP). This generates plausible tours which handle the demand. The generated tours are simulated with an open-source transport simulation (MATSim) for both the diesel and the electric waste collection vehicles. To compare the life cycle costs, we analyze the data using total cost of ownership (TCO). Environmental impacts are evaluated based on a Well-to-Wheel approach. We present a comparison of the two propulsion types for the exemplary use case of Berlin. And we are able to generate a suitable planning to handle Berlin’s waste collection demand using battery electric vehicles only. The TCO calculation reveals that the electrification raises the total operator cost by 16–30%, depending on the scenario and the battery size with conservative assumptions. Furthermore, the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) can be reduced by 60–99%, depending on the carbon footprint of electric power generation. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban freight transport; multi-agent; traffic simulation; electrification; decarbonization; sustainability; waste collection; vehicle routing problem urban freight transport; multi-agent; traffic simulation; electrification; decarbonization; sustainability; waste collection; vehicle routing problem
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ewert, R.; Grahle, A.; Martins-Turner, K.; Syré, A.M.; Nagel, K.; Göhlich, D. Electrification of Urban Waste Collection: Introducing a Simulation-Based Methodology for Technical Feasibility, Impact and Cost Analysis. World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12, 122. https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12030122

AMA Style

Ewert R, Grahle A, Martins-Turner K, Syré AM, Nagel K, Göhlich D. Electrification of Urban Waste Collection: Introducing a Simulation-Based Methodology for Technical Feasibility, Impact and Cost Analysis. World Electric Vehicle Journal. 2021; 12(3):122. https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12030122

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ewert, Ricardo, Alexander Grahle, Kai Martins-Turner, Anne M. Syré, Kai Nagel, and Dietmar Göhlich. 2021. "Electrification of Urban Waste Collection: Introducing a Simulation-Based Methodology for Technical Feasibility, Impact and Cost Analysis" World Electric Vehicle Journal 12, no. 3: 122. https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12030122

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