Barriers and Drivers of Transition to Sustainable Public Transport in the Philippines
2. Literature Review
2.1. Electrification of Public Transport—Opportunities and Challenges
2.2. Participatory Development and Good Governance in Transport Planning
2.3. PESTLE Analysis on EV Adoption
2.4. Literature Gap and Proposed Contribution
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Initial Interview and Results
3.2. PESTLE Analysis
3.3. Respondents, Questionnaire, and Data Collection
4.1. PESTLE Analysis
4.2. Solutions to Sustainable Public Transport
“The government should increase the subsidy for buying electric vehicles. Public transport should not be privatized.”—Transportation Consultant/Analyst
“The government should provide tax incentives for the owner of the electric vehicle.”—Bus, jeepney, and taxi Commuter
“The government must strictly implement the Clean Air Act particularly with the registration vehicles as well as non-renewal of old and smoke-belching vehicles.”—Government Official, Policy Maker
“Vehicle replacement every 30 years. If the vehicle is not replaced by then, the cost of tax for renewal should be doubled or tripled.”—Bus passenger
“The Tanggal-Bulok Tanggal-Usok program should be strictly implemented to remove very old public vehicles that emit a lot of black smoke.”—Autoparts Distributor
“I agree with No Garage, No Car policy as this may limit the number of sales of new cars, reduce the number of cars illegally parked on the roads, and therefore decrease the volume of traffic.”—Jeepney Driver
“The government must standardize the emission testing for vehicles and must strictly implement it. For those imported or locally made vehicles, there must be standards to follow such as EURO 4 or 6 engines.”—Mechanical Engineer
“Strict implementation of PUV modernization program and Government subsidy for electric vehicles.”—Industrial Engineer
“The government should add more lanes for bikes and pedestrians to encourage the commuters to ride bikes or to walk/run/jog for exercise. We cannot do away with these changes, what matters most is how we preserve our environment towards sustainable development.”—Urban/City Planner
“Long-term sustainability would require transforming the way we build our cities and integrating cycling, as well as walking, into our transport planning processes.”—Environmentalist
“The government should provide lanes for bicycles and pavement for people who want to walk.”—Urban Planning Professor
“Government should increase investments in mass public transport like the tram, elevated urban electric train, subway, and bullet train, at the same time invest in renewable energy sources.”—Bus Commuter
“Before doing the e-PUVs, the government needs to improve quality of the roads and infrastructures, especially on provinces. The e-PUVs cannot cross a river without bridges and that is the problem.”—Tricycle Commuter
“Information dissemination about the benefits of renewable energy and integration of the concepts of sustainable developments in other allied subject areas which may promote sustainable communities.”—Tricycle Commuter
“As a requirement to obtain license and franchise, the government should require the drivers to attend a seminar on road and traffic rules. Also, drivers of old PUVs should be hired to drive the e-PUVs.”—Jeepney Commuter
“Develop local-made solar-powered vehicles to boost our car manufacturing industry. Since we are in a tropical country, we receive a huge amount of sunlight and we can use it to power up our transportation modes. This will lead to a lesser carbon footprint by consuming electricity from renewable energy. We could also tie-up with institutions to intensify the said notion for the betterment of the process.”—Bus, Jeepney Commuter
5.1. Barriers to Sustainable Public Transport
5.2. Drivers to Sustainable Public Transport
5.3. Implications of the Study
5.4. Policy Recommendations
- Boost the investment in renewables to increase the current 21% of the total energy mix to make more renewable energy available for charging EVs.
- Develop more public infrastructures which include wider roads with bike and pedestrian lanes as well as parking and charging stations for electric vehicles.
- Diversify the transport sector by investing in electric mass transportation such as railways, subways, and water ferries.
- Improve the government incentives such as purchase subsidy, tax exemptions, and operational support.
- Fund the development of locally made electric vehicles to create a good market, increase the competition, lower the prices, create more jobs, and increase the economic activity.
- Set a long-term goal and strictly implement government policies related to importation, development, purchasing, registration, operation, and disposal of electric vehicles.
- Carry out a massive information campaign geared towards educating the public on the benefits, advantages of electric public transport, and the subsidy program of the government.
5.5. Limitations and Future Research
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Disposal of old vehicles||D||B||B||D|
|No garage–No car policy||B||B||B||D|
|High investment cost||B||B||B||B|
|Decreasing cost of e-PUVs||D||D||D||D|
|High Electricity Prices||B||B||D||B|
|High Gasoline/Diesel Prices||B||B||D||D|
|Importation of PUVs||B||B||B||B|
|Local Manufacturing of PUVs||D||D||D||D|
|Higher Base fare||B||D||D||B|
|Increasing popularity of e-PUVs||D||D||D||D|
|Renewable sources of electricity||D||D||D||D|
|Indirect health effect||D||D||D||D|
|Resistance from transport groups||B||B||B||B|
|Increasing automotive business||D||D||D||D|
|Availability of charging stations||B||B||B||B|
|Development of renewable energy||D||B||D||D|
|Availability of auto parts supply||B||B||D||B|
|Availability of Mechanic/repair shop||B||B||D||B|
|Clean air act||D||D||D||D|
|Alternative Fuel Vehicles Act||D||B||D||D|
|Motor vehicles development Act||D||D||D||D|
|Traffic decongestion/color coding||D||D||D||D|
|Transition to low-carbon economy||D||D||D||D|
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Guno, C.S.; Collera, A.A.; Agaton, C.B. Barriers and Drivers of Transition to Sustainable Public Transport in the Philippines. World Electr. Veh. J. 2021, 12, 46. https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12010046
Guno CS, Collera AA, Agaton CB. Barriers and Drivers of Transition to Sustainable Public Transport in the Philippines. World Electric Vehicle Journal. 2021; 12(1):46. https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12010046Chicago/Turabian Style
Guno, Charmaine Samala, Angelie Azcuna Collera, and Casper Boongaling Agaton. 2021. "Barriers and Drivers of Transition to Sustainable Public Transport in the Philippines" World Electric Vehicle Journal 12, no. 1: 46. https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12010046