2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Electricity Bill Calculation
2.2. Problem Formulation
- To find the optimal policy and strategies for using the energy stored in EV batteries to reduce the total energy cost H of the building owner.
- To find the SoC optimal range of EV batteries with slow battery degradation, while providing building load supply when necessary, powertrain for the EV, peak shaving and frequency regulation simultaneously.
2.3. Peak Shaving
2.4. EV Battery Model and Degradation Cost
2.5. Frequency Regulations
2.6. Multi-objective Optimization
- Minimize EV’s owner electricity bill
- Such that
- The gain from selling EV energy to building owner is maximized.
- Minimize battery degradation thus minimize battery cost.
- Keep SoC within SoCmin < SoC < SoCmax.
2.7. Simulation Strategy
3.1. EV Owner and Household Bill
3.2. Electricity Bill for Building Owner
Conflicts of Interest
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|H||Daily electricity bill in $|
|Helect||Daily off-peak electricity bill in $|
|Hpeak||Daily on-peak electricity bill in $|
|Ha||Adjusted electricity bill after peak shaving|
|αelec||energy price in $/MWh|
|αpeak||peak demand price in $/MW|
|r(t)||power consume at time t|
|rpeak||power consume during peak hours|
|bn(t)||Energy store in the nth battery|
|n(t)||The average power injection of the nth battery|
|N||Number of EVs|
|is the nth MBESS cell price $/Wh|
|Kn||Number of cycles that the nth MBESS could be operated within|
|s(t)||The normalized frequency regulation signal|
|αc||Frequency regulation revenue|
|αmis||Frequency cost mismatch penalty|
|SoCmin||Min State of Charge|
|SoCt||Current State of Charge|
|SoCmax||Max State of Charge|
|cn||Frequency regulation capacity of each EV|
|Battery charging of the nth EV|
|Discharging power of the nth EV|
|y(t)||Frequency regulation load baseline|
|Battery capacity power of the nth EV|
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