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Review

Carbohydrate Immune Adjuvants in Subunit Vaccines

1
School of Chemistry and Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia
2
Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia
3
School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceutics 2020, 12(10), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12100965
Received: 8 September 2020 / Revised: 8 October 2020 / Accepted: 12 October 2020 / Published: 14 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polysaccharide in Drug Delivery System)
Modern subunit vaccines are composed of antigens and a delivery system and/or adjuvant (immune stimulator) that triggers the desired immune responses. Adjuvants mimic pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are typically associated with infections. Carbohydrates displayed on the surface of pathogens are often recognized as PAMPs by receptors on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Consequently, carbohydrates and their analogues have been used as adjuvants and delivery systems to promote antigen transport to APCs. Carbohydrates are biocompatible, usually nontoxic, biodegradable, and some are mucoadhesive. As such, carbohydrates and their derivatives have been intensively explored for the development of new adjuvants. This review assesses the immunological functions of carbohydrate ligands and their ability to enhance systemic and mucosal immune responses against co-administered antigens. The role of carbohydrate-based adjuvants/delivery systems in the development of subunit vaccines is discussed in detail. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbohydrates; peptide/protein subunit vaccines; immunostimulation; adjuvants carbohydrates; peptide/protein subunit vaccines; immunostimulation; adjuvants
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bashiri, S.; Koirala, P.; Toth, I.; Skwarczynski, M. Carbohydrate Immune Adjuvants in Subunit Vaccines. Pharmaceutics 2020, 12, 965. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12100965

AMA Style

Bashiri S, Koirala P, Toth I, Skwarczynski M. Carbohydrate Immune Adjuvants in Subunit Vaccines. Pharmaceutics. 2020; 12(10):965. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12100965

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bashiri, Sahra, Prashamsa Koirala, Istvan Toth, and Mariusz Skwarczynski. 2020. "Carbohydrate Immune Adjuvants in Subunit Vaccines" Pharmaceutics 12, no. 10: 965. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12100965

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