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Article

Comprehensive Analysis of the Safety Profile of a Single-Stranded RNA Nano-Structure Adjuvant

Department of Biotechnology, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon 14662, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These two authors contributed equally to this work.
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(9), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11090464
Received: 29 July 2019 / Revised: 4 September 2019 / Accepted: 5 September 2019 / Published: 7 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles to Improve the Efficacy of Vaccines)
Adjuvants enhance the efficacy of vaccines by stimulating immune response-related gene expression and pathways. Although some adjuvants have been approved for commercial use in human vaccines (e.g., Alum, MF59, and AS03), they might elicit adverse side effects, such as autoimmune diseases. Recently, we developed a novel single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) nano-structure adjuvant, which can stimulate both Th1 and Th2 responses. In this study, we evaluated the safety and toxicological profiles of this ssRNA nano-structure adjuvant in vitro and in vivo. Mice were intramuscularly immunized with the ssRNA nano-structure adjuvant three times, once every 2 weeks. The results indicate no significant differences in hematological and serum biochemistry parameters between the ssRNA-treated groups and the control group. From a histopathological perspective, no evidence of tissue damage was found in any group. The levels of IgE and anti-nuclear antibodies, which are markers of autoimmune disease, were not different between the ssRNA-treated groups and the control group. The findings of this study suggest that the ssRNA nano-structure can be used as a safe adjuvant to increase vaccine efficacies. View Full-Text
Keywords: nano-structure adjuvant; vaccine; ssRNA; autoimmune disease nano-structure adjuvant; vaccine; ssRNA; autoimmune disease
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    Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3354374
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    Description: Figure S1: Brief structure of CrPV IGR IRES-derived ssRNA nano-structure adjuvant. Figure S2: Dose-dependent cell viabilities of various cell lines treated with the ssRNA nano-structure adjuvant, using MTT assays. Relative viabilities of (A) A549 cells and (B) HepG2 cells were compared to negative control (0 concentration of ssRNA nano-structure adjuvant) from 24 h to 72 h, based on the ssRNA concentration. Figure S3: Pro-inflammatory cytokine induction in RAW 264.7 cells after treatment with poly I:C and ssRNA nano-structure adjuvant. Supplementary method: Real-time PCR for proinflammatory cytokine in RAW 264.7 cells after treatment with poly I:C and ssRNA nano-structure adjuvant. Figure S4: Serum levels of MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL12p70. Sera from mice in groups 1–5 were collected 1 day after the last immunization, and sera from mice in group 6 were collected 2 weeks after the last immunization.
MDPI and ACS Style

Park, H.-J.; Ko, H.L.; Won, D.-H.; Hwang, D.-B.; Shin, Y.-S.; Kwak, H.-W.; Kim, H.-J.; Yun, J.-W.; Nam, J.-H. Comprehensive Analysis of the Safety Profile of a Single-Stranded RNA Nano-Structure Adjuvant. Pharmaceutics 2019, 11, 464. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11090464

AMA Style

Park H-J, Ko HL, Won D-H, Hwang D-B, Shin Y-S, Kwak H-W, Kim H-J, Yun J-W, Nam J-H. Comprehensive Analysis of the Safety Profile of a Single-Stranded RNA Nano-Structure Adjuvant. Pharmaceutics. 2019; 11(9):464. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11090464

Chicago/Turabian Style

Park, Hyeong-Jun; Ko, Hae L.; Won, Dong-Hoon; Hwang, Da-Bin; Shin, Yoo-Sub; Kwak, Hye-Won; Kim, Hye-Jung; Yun, Jun-Won; Nam, Jae-Hwan. 2019. "Comprehensive Analysis of the Safety Profile of a Single-Stranded RNA Nano-Structure Adjuvant" Pharmaceutics 11, no. 9: 464. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11090464

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