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Open AccessArticle

Inclusion Complexes of Melphalan with Gemini-Conjugated β-Cyclodextrin: Physicochemical Properties and Chemotherapeutic Efficacy in In-Vitro Tumor Models

1
Drug Discovery and Development Research Group, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Rd, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E5, Canada
2
College of Pharmacy, Taibah University, Medina 42353, Saudi Arabia
3
Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, 110 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5C9, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(9), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11090427
Received: 12 July 2019 / Revised: 6 August 2019 / Accepted: 10 August 2019 / Published: 22 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Delivery Technology Development in Canada)
β-cyclodextrin (βCD) has been widely explored as an excipient for pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals as it forms stable host–guest inclusion complexes and enhances the solubility of poorly soluble active agents. To enhance intracellular drug delivery, βCD was chemically conjugated to an 18-carbon chain cationic gemini surfactant which undergoes self-assembly to form nanoscale complexes. The novel gemini surfactant-modified βCD carrier host (hereafter referred to as 18:1βCDg) was designed to combine the solubilization and encapsulation capacity of the βCD macrocycle and the cell-penetrating ability of the gemini surfactant conjugate. Melphalan (Mel), a chemotherapeutic agent for melanoma, was selected as a model for a poorly soluble drug. Characterization of the 18:1βCDg-Mel host–guest complex was carried out using 1D/2D 1H NMR spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The 1D/2D NMR spectral results indicated the formation of stable and well-defined 18:1βCDg-Mel inclusion complexes at the 2:1 host–guest mole ratio; whereas, host–drug interaction was attenuated at greater 18:1βCDg mole ratio due to hydrophobic aggregation that accounts for the reduced Mel solubility. The in vitro evaluations were performed using monolayer, 3D spheroid, and Mel-resistant melanoma cell lines. The 18:1βCDg-Mel complex showed significant enhancement in the chemotherapeutic efficacy of Mel with 2–3-fold decrease in Mel half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values. The findings demonstrate the potential applicability of the 18:1βCDg delivery system as a safe and efficient carrier for a poorly soluble chemotherapeutic in melanoma therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: cationic gemini surfactant; melphalan; inclusion complex; ROESY NMR spectroscopy; 3D spheroid; drug-resistant melanoma cationic gemini surfactant; melphalan; inclusion complex; ROESY NMR spectroscopy; 3D spheroid; drug-resistant melanoma
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mohammed-Saeid, W.; Karoyo, A.H.; Verrall, R.E.; Wilson, L.D.; Badea, I. Inclusion Complexes of Melphalan with Gemini-Conjugated β-Cyclodextrin: Physicochemical Properties and Chemotherapeutic Efficacy in In-Vitro Tumor Models. Pharmaceutics 2019, 11, 427.

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