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Open AccessArticle

Towards Printed Pediatric Medicines in Hospital Pharmacies: Comparison of 2D and 3D-Printed Orodispersible Warfarin Films with Conventional Oral Powders in Unit Dose Sachets

1
Pharmaceutical Sciences Laboratory, Åbo Akademi University, Artillerigatan 6A, 20520 Åbo, Finland
2
HUS Pharmacy, HUS Helsinki University Hospital, Stenbäcksgatan 9B, 00290 Helsingfors, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(7), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11070334
Received: 19 June 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 14 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of Pharmaceuticals and Drug Delivery Devices)
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Abstract

To date, the lack of age-appropriate medicines for many indications results in dose manipulation of commercially available dosage forms, commonly resulting in inaccurate doses. Various printing technologies have recently been explored in the pharmaceutical field due to the flexible and precise nature of the techniques. The aim of this study was, therefore, to compare the currently used method to produce patient-tailored warfarin doses at HUS Pharmacy in Finland with two innovative printing techniques. Dosage forms of various strengths (0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg) were prepared utilizing semisolid extrusion 3D printing, inkjet printing and the established compounding procedure for oral powders in unit dose sachets (OPSs). Orodispersible films (ODFs) drug-loaded with warfarin were prepared by means of printing using hydroxypropylcellulose as a film-forming agent. The OPSs consisted of commercially available warfarin tablets and lactose monohydrate as a filler. The ODFs resulted in thin and flexible films showing acceptable ODF properties. Moreover, the printed ODFs displayed improved drug content compared to the established OPSs. All dosage forms were found to be stable over the one-month stability study and suitable for administration through a naso-gastric tube, thus, enabling administration to all possible patient groups in a hospital ward. This work demonstrates the potential of utilizing printing technologies for the production of on-demand patient-specific doses and further discusses the advantages and limitations of each method. View Full-Text
Keywords: warfarin; 3D printing; semisolid extrusion 3D printing; inkjet printing; orodispersible film; oral powder; pediatric; hospital pharmacy; personalized medicine; on-demand manufacturing warfarin; 3D printing; semisolid extrusion 3D printing; inkjet printing; orodispersible film; oral powder; pediatric; hospital pharmacy; personalized medicine; on-demand manufacturing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Öblom, H.; Sjöholm, E.; Rautamo, M.; Sandler, N. Towards Printed Pediatric Medicines in Hospital Pharmacies: Comparison of 2D and 3D-Printed Orodispersible Warfarin Films with Conventional Oral Powders in Unit Dose Sachets. Pharmaceutics 2019, 11, 334.

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