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Open AccessArticle

Design and Evaluation of pH-Dependent Nanosystems Based on Cellulose Acetate Phthalate, Nanoparticles Loaded with Chlorhexidine for Periodontal Treatment

1
Laboratorio de Posgrado en Tecnología Farmacéutica, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Estado de México C.P. 54745, Mexico
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Laboratorio de Procesos de Transformación y Tecnologías Emergentes de Alimentos, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Estado de Mexico CP 54714, Mexico
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Departamento de Farmacia, Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México 04510, Mexico
4
Laboratorio de Virología, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Estado de México C.P. 54745, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceutics 2019, 11(11), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11110604
Received: 18 September 2019 / Revised: 6 November 2019 / Accepted: 6 November 2019 / Published: 13 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Oral and Buccal Drug Delivery)
This work aimed to develop and evaluate pH-dependent systems based on nanospheres (NSphs) and nanocapsules (NCs) loaded with chlorhexidine (CHX) base as a novel formulation for the treatment of periodontal disease. Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) was employed as a pH-dependent polymeric material. The NSphs and NCs were prepared using the emulsion-diffusion technique and then characterized according to encapsulation efficiency (EE), size, zeta-potential, morphology, thermal properties, release profiles and a preliminary clinical panel test. The formulations showed 77% and 61% EE and 57% and 84% process efficiency (PE), respectively. Both systems were spherical with an average size of 250–300 nm. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies showed that the drug has the potential to be dispersed molecularly in the NSph matrix or dissolved in the oily center of the NCs. The CHX release test revealed that the release of NSphs-CHX follows Fickian diffusion involving diffusion-erosion processes. The NCs showed a slower release than the NSphs, following non-Fickian diffusion, which is indicative of anomalous transport. These nanosystems may, therefore, be employed as novel formulations for treating periodontal disease, due to (1) their coverage of a large surface area, (2) the controlled release of active substances at different pH, and (3) potential gingival tissue infiltration. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanocapsules; nanospheres; periodontitis; eugenol; buccal drug delivery; chlorhexidine base; cellulose acetate phthalate; pH-dependent polymeric nanocapsules; nanospheres; periodontitis; eugenol; buccal drug delivery; chlorhexidine base; cellulose acetate phthalate; pH-dependent polymeric
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vidal-Romero, G.; Zambrano-Zaragoza, M.L.; Martínez-Acevedo, L.; Leyva-Gómez, G.; Mendoza-Elvira, S.E.; Quintanar-Guerrero, D. Design and Evaluation of pH-Dependent Nanosystems Based on Cellulose Acetate Phthalate, Nanoparticles Loaded with Chlorhexidine for Periodontal Treatment. Pharmaceutics 2019, 11, 604. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11110604

AMA Style

Vidal-Romero G, Zambrano-Zaragoza ML, Martínez-Acevedo L, Leyva-Gómez G, Mendoza-Elvira SE, Quintanar-Guerrero D. Design and Evaluation of pH-Dependent Nanosystems Based on Cellulose Acetate Phthalate, Nanoparticles Loaded with Chlorhexidine for Periodontal Treatment. Pharmaceutics. 2019; 11(11):604. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11110604

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vidal-Romero, Gustavo; Zambrano-Zaragoza, María L.; Martínez-Acevedo, Lizbeth; Leyva-Gómez, Gerardo; Mendoza-Elvira, Susana E.; Quintanar-Guerrero, David. 2019. "Design and Evaluation of pH-Dependent Nanosystems Based on Cellulose Acetate Phthalate, Nanoparticles Loaded with Chlorhexidine for Periodontal Treatment" Pharmaceutics 11, no. 11: 604. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11110604

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