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Open AccessMeeting Report

The Ins and Outs of Viral Infection: Keystone Meeting Review

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
Virus-Cell Interaction Section, HIV Drug Resistance Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2014, 6(9), 3652-3662;
Received: 6 September 2014 / Revised: 23 September 2014 / Accepted: 23 September 2014 / Published: 25 September 2014
PDF [109 KB, uploaded 12 May 2015]


Newly observed mechanisms for viral entry, assembly, and exit are challenging our current understanding of the replication cycle of different viruses. To address and better understand these mechanisms, a Keystone Symposium was organized in the snowy mountains of Colorado (“The Ins and Outs of Viral Infection: Entry, Assembly, Exit, and Spread”; 30 March–4 April 2014, Beaver Run Resort, Breckenridge, Colorado, organized by Karla Kirkegaard, Mavis Agbandje-McKenna, and Eric O. Freed). The meeting served to bring together cell biologists, structural biologists, geneticists, and scientists expert in viral pathogenesis to discuss emerging mechanisms of viral ins and outs. The conference was organized around different phases of the viral replication cycle, including cell entry, viral assembly and post-assembly maturation, virus structure, cell exit, and virus spread. This review aims to highlight important topics and themes that emerged during the conference. View Full-Text
Keywords: Keystone Symposium; virus infection; Ebola; HIV-1; VZV; HSV; HCV Keystone Symposium; virus infection; Ebola; HIV-1; VZV; HSV; HCV
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Bird, S.W.; Kirkegaard, K.; Agbandje-McKenna, M.; Freed, E.O. The Ins and Outs of Viral Infection: Keystone Meeting Review. Viruses 2014, 6, 3652-3662.

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