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Viruses 2012, 4(9), 1390-1409;

MicroRNA-Mediated Restriction of HIV-1 in Resting CD4+ T Cells and Monocytes

1,2,* and 1,2,*
Interdepartmental Program in Translational Biology and Molecular Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 June 2012 / Revised: 28 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 July 2012 / Published: 29 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and miRNAs)
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In contrast to activated CD4+ T cells and differentiated macrophages, resting CD4+ T cells and monocytes are non-permissive for HIV-1 replication. The mediators which regulate the resting or quiescent phenotype are often actively involved in the restriction of viral replication and the establishment and maintenance of viral latency. Recently, certain microRNAs which are highly expressed in resting cells have been implicated in this capacity, inhibiting the expression of cellular proteins that are also viral co-factors; following activation these microRNAs exhibit decreased expression, while their targets are correspondingly up-regulated, contributing to a favorable milieu for virus replication. Other microRNAs exhibiting a similar expression pattern in resting and activated cells have been shown to directly target the HIV-1 genome. In this review we will discuss the resting state and the causes behind viral restriction in resting cells, with emphasis on the role of microRNAs. View Full-Text
Keywords: miRNAs; HIV; CD4+ T cells; monocytes/macrophages miRNAs; HIV; CD4+ T cells; monocytes/macrophages

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Chiang, K.; Rice, A.P. MicroRNA-Mediated Restriction of HIV-1 in Resting CD4+ T Cells and Monocytes. Viruses 2012, 4, 1390-1409.

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