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Review

The HIV-1 Capsid: From Structural Component to Key Factor for Host Nuclear Invasion

1
Advanced Molecular Virology and Retroviral Dynamics Group, Department of Virology Pasteur Institute, 75015 Paris, France
2
BioSPC Doctoral School, Universitè de Paris, 75015 Paris, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Duane P. Grandgenett and Luis Menéndez-Arias
Viruses 2021, 13(2), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020273
Received: 29 December 2020 / Revised: 29 January 2021 / Accepted: 5 February 2021 / Published: 10 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Integration)
Since the discovery of HIV-1, the viral capsid has been recognized to have an important role as a structural protein that holds the viral genome, together with viral proteins essential for viral life cycle, such as the reverse transcriptase (RT) and the integrase (IN). The reverse transcription process takes place between the cytoplasm and the nucleus of the host cell, thus the Reverse Transcription Complexes (RTCs)/Pre-integration Complexes (PICs) are hosted in intact or partial cores. Early biochemical assays failed to identify the viral CA associated to the RTC/PIC, possibly due to the stringent detergent conditions used to fractionate the cells or to isolate the viral complexes. More recently, it has been observed that some host partners of capsid, such as Nup153 and CPSF6, can only bind multimeric CA proteins organized in hexamers. Those host factors are mainly located in the nuclear compartment, suggesting the entrance of the viral CA as multimeric structure inside the nucleus. Recent data show CA complexes within the nucleus having a different morphology from the cytoplasmic ones, clearly highlighting the remodeling of the viral cores during nuclear translocation. Thus, the multimeric CA complexes lead the viral genome into the host nuclear compartment, piloting the intranuclear journey of HIV-1 in order to successfully replicate. The aim of this review is to discuss and analyze the main discoveries to date that uncover the viral capsid as a key player in the reverse transcription and PIC maturation until the viral DNA integration into the host genome. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV-1; capsid; nucleus; PIC; RTC; MLO HIV-1; capsid; nucleus; PIC; RTC; MLO
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MDPI and ACS Style

Scoca, V.; Di Nunzio, F. The HIV-1 Capsid: From Structural Component to Key Factor for Host Nuclear Invasion. Viruses 2021, 13, 273. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020273

AMA Style

Scoca V, Di Nunzio F. The HIV-1 Capsid: From Structural Component to Key Factor for Host Nuclear Invasion. Viruses. 2021; 13(2):273. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020273

Chicago/Turabian Style

Scoca, Viviana, and Francesca Di Nunzio. 2021. "The HIV-1 Capsid: From Structural Component to Key Factor for Host Nuclear Invasion" Viruses 13, no. 2: 273. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020273

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