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Open AccessArticle

The Effect of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Strains and the Corresponding Infected-Macrophages’ Supernatant on Macrophage Inflammatory Function and Lymphocyte Apoptosis

1
Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA
2
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070701
Received: 4 May 2020 / Revised: 22 June 2020 / Accepted: 23 June 2020 / Published: 29 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus and Related Pestiviruses)
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important viral disease of cattle that causes immune dysfunction. Macrophages are the key cells for the initiation of the innate immunity and play an important role in viral pathogenesis. In this in vitro study, we studied the effect of the supernatant of BVDV-infected macrophage on immune dysfunction. We infected bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) with high or low virulence strains of BVDV. The supernatant recovered from BVDV-infected MDM was used to examine the functional activity and surface marker expression of normal macrophages as well as lymphocyte apoptosis. Supernatants from the highly virulent 1373-infected MDM reduced phagocytosis, bactericidal activity and downregulated MHC II and CD14 expression of macrophages. Supernatants from 1373-infected MDM induced apoptosis in MDBK cells, lymphocytes or BL-3 cells. By protein electrophoresis, several protein bands were unique for high-virulence, 1373-infected MDM supernatant. There was no significant difference in the apoptosis-related cytokine mRNA (IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-a) of infected MDM. These data suggest that BVDV has an indirect negative effect on macrophage functions that is strain-specific. Further studies are required to determine the identity and mechanism of action of these virulence factors present in the supernatant of the infected macrophages. View Full-Text
Keywords: bovine viral diarrhea virus; cytopathic BVDV; immunosuppression; lymphocyte apoptosis; monocyte-derived macrophages; non-cytopathic BVDV bovine viral diarrhea virus; cytopathic BVDV; immunosuppression; lymphocyte apoptosis; monocyte-derived macrophages; non-cytopathic BVDV
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Abdelsalam, K.; Rajput, M.; Elmowalid, G.; Sobraske, J.; Thakur, N.; Abdallah, H.; Ali, A.A.H.; Chase, C.C.L. The Effect of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Strains and the Corresponding Infected-Macrophages’ Supernatant on Macrophage Inflammatory Function and Lymphocyte Apoptosis. Viruses 2020, 12, 701.

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