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Eco-Epidemiological Evidence of the Transmission of Avian and Human Influenza A Viruses in Wild Pigs in Campeche, Mexico

Laboratorio de Investigación del Departamento de Medicina y Zootecnia de Cerdos, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia (FMVZ), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, Av. Universidad #3000, Ciudad de Mexico 04510, Mexico
Laboratorio de Ecología de Enfermedades y Una Salud, Departamento de Etología, Fauna Silvestre y Animales de Laboratorio, FMVZ, UNAM, Ciudad de México 04510, Mexico
Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Unidad de Investigación, FMVZ, UNAM, Ciudad de México 04510, Mexico
Departamento de Microbiología e Inmunología, FMVZ, UNAM, Ciudad de México 04510, Mexico
Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Puebla, Carretera federal Mexico-Puebla km. 125.5, (Boulevard Forjadores), Puebla C.P. 72760, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(5), 528;
Received: 23 April 2020 / Revised: 7 May 2020 / Accepted: 8 May 2020 / Published: 11 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influenza Viruses in Wildlife)
Influenza, a zoonosis caused by various influenza A virus subtypes, affects a wide range of species, including humans. Pig cells express both sialyl-α-2,3-Gal and sialyl-α-2,6-Gal receptors, which make them susceptible to infection by avian and human viruses, respectively. To date, it is not known whether wild pigs in Mexico are affected by influenza virus subtypes, nor whether this would make them a potential risk of influenza transmission to humans. In this work, 61 hogs from two municipalities in Campeche, Mexico, were sampled. Hemagglutination inhibition assays were performed in 61 serum samples, and positive results were found for human H1N1 (11.47%), swine H1N1 (8.19%), and avian H5N2 (1.63%) virus variants. qRT-PCR assays were performed on the nasal swab, tracheal, and lung samples, and 19.67% of all hogs were positive to these assays. An avian H5N2 virus, first reported in 1994, was identified by sequencing. Our results demonstrate that wild pigs are participating in the exposure, transmission, maintenance, and possible diversification of influenza viruses in fragmented habitats, highlighting the synanthropic behavior of this species, which has been poorly studied in Mexico. View Full-Text
Keywords: A/H1N1; A/H5N2; synanthropic; wild pig; zoonosis A/H1N1; A/H5N2; synanthropic; wild pig; zoonosis
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Maya-Badillo, B.A.; Ojeda-Flores, R.; Chaves, A.; Reveles-Félix, S.; Orta-Pineda, G.; Martínez-Mercado, M.J.; Saavedra-Montañez, M.; Segura-Velázquez, R.; Sanvicente, M.; Sánchez-Betancourt, J.I. Eco-Epidemiological Evidence of the Transmission of Avian and Human Influenza A Viruses in Wild Pigs in Campeche, Mexico. Viruses 2020, 12, 528.

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