Next Article in Journal
Efficient Method for Molecular Characterization of the 5′ and 3′ Ends of the Dengue Virus Genome
Next Article in Special Issue
Key Players in HIV-1 Transcriptional Regulation: Targets for a Functional Cure
Previous Article in Journal
30th Brazilian Society for Virology 2019 Annual Meeting—Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil
Previous Article in Special Issue
Role of Divalent Cations in HIV-1 Replication and Pathogenicity
Open AccessReview

Cellular Factors Targeting HIV-1 Transcription and Viral RNA Transcripts

1
Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, 89081 Ulm, Germany
2
Department of Infectious Diseases, King’s College London, Guy’s Hospital, London SE1 9RT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(5), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12050495
Received: 30 March 2020 / Revised: 24 April 2020 / Accepted: 27 April 2020 / Published: 29 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV-1 Transcription Regulation)
Restriction factors are structurally and functionally diverse cellular proteins that constitute a first line of defense against viral pathogens. Exceptions exist, but typically these proteins are upregulated by interferons (IFNs), target viral components, and are rapidly evolving due to the continuous virus–host arms race. Restriction factors may target HIV replication at essentially each step of the retroviral replication cycle, and the suppression of viral transcription and the degradation of viral RNA transcripts are emerging as major innate immune defense mechanisms. Recent data show that some antiviral factors, such as the tripartite motif-containing protein 22 (TRIM22) and the γ-IFN-inducible protein 16 (IFI16), do not target HIV-1 itself but limit the availability of the cellular transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1), which is critical for effective viral gene expression. In addition, several RNA-interacting cellular factors including RNAse L, the NEDD4-binding protein 1 (N4BP1), and the zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) have been identified as important immune effectors against HIV-1 that may be involved in the maintenance of the latent viral reservoirs, representing the major obstacle against viral elimination and cure. Here, we review recent findings on specific cellular antiviral factors targeting HIV-1 transcription or viral RNA transcripts and discuss their potential role in viral latency. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV; restriction factors; ZAP/KHNYN; N4BP1; Sp1; RNAses; viral latency HIV; restriction factors; ZAP/KHNYN; N4BP1; Sp1; RNAses; viral latency
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Nchioua, R.; Bosso, M.; Kmiec, D.; Kirchhoff, F. Cellular Factors Targeting HIV-1 Transcription and Viral RNA Transcripts. Viruses 2020, 12, 495.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop