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Role of Porcine Aminopeptidase N and Sialic Acids in Porcine Coronavirus Infections in Primary Porcine Enterocytes

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Laboratory of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, B-9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
2
Department of Morphology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, B-9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(4), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12040402
Received: 27 February 2020 / Revised: 24 March 2020 / Accepted: 2 April 2020 / Published: 5 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) have been reported to use aminopeptidase N (APN) as a cellular receptor. Recently, the role of APN as a receptor for PEDV has been questioned. In our study, the role of APN in PEDV and TGEV infections was studied in primary porcine enterocytes. After seven days of cultivation, 89% of enterocytes presented microvilli and showed a two- to five-fold higher susceptibility to PEDV and TGEV. A significant increase of PEDV and TGEV infection was correlated with a higher expression of APN, which was indicative that APN plays an important role in porcine coronavirus infections. However, PEDV and TGEV infected both APN positive and negative enterocytes. PEDV and TGEV Miller showed a higher infectivity in APN positive cells than in APN negative cells. In contrast, TGEV Purdue replicated better in APN negative cells. These results show that an additional receptor exists, different from APN for porcine coronaviruses. Subsequently, treatment of enterocytes with neuraminidase (NA) had no effect on infection efficiency of TGEV, implying that terminal cellular sialic acids (SAs) are no receptor determinants for TGEV. Treatment of TGEV with NA significantly enhanced the infection which shows that TGEV is masked by SAs. View Full-Text
Keywords: enterocytes; porcine coronavirus; transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV); Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV); aminopeptidase N; sialic acids enterocytes; porcine coronavirus; transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV); Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV); aminopeptidase N; sialic acids
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Cui, T.; Theuns, S.; Xie, J.; Broeck, W.V.; Nauwynck, H.J. Role of Porcine Aminopeptidase N and Sialic Acids in Porcine Coronavirus Infections in Primary Porcine Enterocytes. Viruses 2020, 12, 402.

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