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Open AccessArticle

Next-Generation Sequencing Analysis of Cellular Response to Influenza B Virus Infection

by Zizhang Sheng 1,*,†, Chen Huang 2,†, Runxia Liu 2,†, Yicheng Guo 1, Zhiguang Ran 2, Feng Li 2 and Dan Wang 2,*
Zukerman Institute of Mind Brain Behavior, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA
Department of Biology and Microbiology, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Viruses 2020, 12(4), 383;
Received: 19 December 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2020 / Accepted: 28 March 2020 / Published: 31 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-A Influenza)
Influenza B virus (IBV) is a respiratory pathogen that infects humans and causes seasonal influenza epidemics. However, cellular response to IBV infection in humans and mechanisms of host-mediated restriction of IBV replication are not thoroughly understood. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to perform transcriptome profiling of IBV-infected human lung epithelial A549 cells at 0, 6, 12, and 24 h post infection (hpi) and characterized the cellular gene expression dynamics. We observed that more than 4000 host genes were differentially regulated during the study period, which included up regulation of genes encoding proteins, having a role in the innate antiviral immune responses, immune activation, cellular metabolism, autophagy, and apoptosis, as well as down regulation of genes involved in mitosis and cell proliferation. Further analysis of RNA-Seq data coupled with RT-qPCR validation collectively showed that double-strand RNA recognition pathways, including retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), were substantially activated following IBV infection. Taken together, these results provide important initial insights into the intimate interaction between IBV and lung epithelial cells, which can be further explored towards elucidation of the cellular mechanisms in restriction or elimination of IBV infections in humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: Influenza B virus; innate immune response; RNA-Seq; infection Influenza B virus; innate immune response; RNA-Seq; infection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sheng, Z.; Huang, C.; Liu, R.; Guo, Y.; Ran, Z.; Li, F.; Wang, D. Next-Generation Sequencing Analysis of Cellular Response to Influenza B Virus Infection. Viruses 2020, 12, 383.

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