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Leveraging 3D Model Systems to Understand Viral Interactions with the Respiratory Mucosa

1
Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, Maryland Pathogen Research Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
2
Biophysics Program, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
3
Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Oliver Schildgen
Viruses 2020, 12(12), 1425; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12121425
Received: 2 November 2020 / Revised: 27 November 2020 / Accepted: 2 December 2020 / Published: 11 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Application of 3D Tissue Culture Systems in Virology)
Respiratory viruses remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population, underscoring the importance of ongoing basic research into virus–host interactions. However, many critical aspects of infection are difficult, if not impossible, to probe using standard cell lines, 2D culture formats, or even animal models. In vitro systems such as airway epithelial cultures at air–liquid interface, organoids, or ‘on-chip’ technologies allow interrogation in human cells and recapitulate emergent properties of the airway epithelium—the primary target for respiratory virus infection. While some of these models have been used for over thirty years, ongoing advancements in both culture techniques and analytical tools continue to provide new opportunities to investigate airway epithelial biology and viral infection phenotypes in both normal and diseased host backgrounds. Here we review these models and their application to studying respiratory viruses. Furthermore, given the ability of these systems to recapitulate the extracellular microenvironment, we evaluate their potential to serve as a platform for studies specifically addressing viral interactions at the mucosal surface and detail techniques that can be employed to expand our understanding. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D model; tissue engineering; mucus; periciliary layer; mucosal barrier; viral infection; microscopy 3D model; tissue engineering; mucus; periciliary layer; mucosal barrier; viral infection; microscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Iverson, E.; Kaler, L.; Agostino, E.L.; Song, D.; Duncan, G.A.; Scull, M.A. Leveraging 3D Model Systems to Understand Viral Interactions with the Respiratory Mucosa. Viruses 2020, 12, 1425. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12121425

AMA Style

Iverson E, Kaler L, Agostino EL, Song D, Duncan GA, Scull MA. Leveraging 3D Model Systems to Understand Viral Interactions with the Respiratory Mucosa. Viruses. 2020; 12(12):1425. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12121425

Chicago/Turabian Style

Iverson, Ethan; Kaler, Logan; Agostino, Eva L.; Song, Daniel; Duncan, Gregg A.; Scull, Margaret A. 2020. "Leveraging 3D Model Systems to Understand Viral Interactions with the Respiratory Mucosa" Viruses 12, no. 12: 1425. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12121425

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