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Article

Increased HIV Subtype Diversity Reflecting Demographic Changes in the HIV Epidemic in New South Wales, Australia

1
The Kirby Institute, The University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia
2
Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney 2050, Australia
3
HIV Reference Laboratory, Sydney 2010, Australia
4
New South Wales Health Pathology-RPA, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown 2050, Australia
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Health Protection NSW, Sydney 2059, Australia
6
Positive Life New South Wales, Sydney 2010, Australia
7
AIDS Council of NSW (ACON), Sydney 2010, Australia
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NSW Ministry of Health, Sydney 2059, Australia
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Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney 2050, Australia
10
New South Wales Health Pathology-ICPMR, Westmead Hospital, Westmead 2145, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Membership of NSW HIV Prevention Partnership provided in the Acknowledgments.
Academic Editor: Miguel A. Martínez
Viruses 2020, 12(12), 1402; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12121402
Received: 13 November 2020 / Revised: 4 December 2020 / Accepted: 4 December 2020 / Published: 6 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity and Evolution of HIV and HCV)
Changes over time in HIV-1 subtype diversity within a population reflect changes in factors influencing the development of local epidemics. Here we report on the genetic diversity of 2364 reverse transcriptase sequences from people living with HIV-1 in New South Wales (NSW) notified between 2004 and 2018. These data represent >70% of all new HIV-1 notifications in the state over this period. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to identify subtype-specific transmission clusters. Subtype B and non-B infections differed across all demographics analysed (p < 0.001). We found a strong positive association for infections among females, individuals not born in Australia or reporting heterosexual transmission being of non-B origin. Further, we found an overall increase in non-B infections among men who have sex with men from 50 to 79% in the last 10 years. However, we also found differences between non-B subtypes; heterosexual transmission was positively associated with subtype C only. In addition, the majority of subtype B infections were associated with clusters, while the majority of non-B infections were singletons. However, we found seven non-B clusters (≥5 sequences) indicative of local ongoing transmission. In conclusion, we present how the HIV-1 epidemic has changed over time in NSW, becoming more heterogeneous with distinct subtype-specific demographic associations. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV; non-B subtypes; transmission clusters; stage of infection; heterosexual transmission HIV; non-B subtypes; transmission clusters; stage of infection; heterosexual transmission
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MDPI and ACS Style

Di Giallonardo, F.; Pinto, A.N.; Keen, P.; Shaik, A.; Carrera, A.; Salem, H.; Selvey, C.; Nigro, S.J.; Fraser, N.; Price, K.; Holden, J.; Lee, F.J.; Dwyer, D.E.; Bavinton, B.R.; Grulich, A.E.; Kelleher, A.D.; on behalf of the NSW HIV Prevention Partnership Project. Increased HIV Subtype Diversity Reflecting Demographic Changes in the HIV Epidemic in New South Wales, Australia. Viruses 2020, 12, 1402. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12121402

AMA Style

Di Giallonardo F, Pinto AN, Keen P, Shaik A, Carrera A, Salem H, Selvey C, Nigro SJ, Fraser N, Price K, Holden J, Lee FJ, Dwyer DE, Bavinton BR, Grulich AE, Kelleher AD, on behalf of the NSW HIV Prevention Partnership Project. Increased HIV Subtype Diversity Reflecting Demographic Changes in the HIV Epidemic in New South Wales, Australia. Viruses. 2020; 12(12):1402. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12121402

Chicago/Turabian Style

Di Giallonardo, Francesca, Angie N. Pinto, Phillip Keen, Ansari Shaik, Alex Carrera, Hanan Salem, Christine Selvey, Steven J. Nigro, Neil Fraser, Karen Price, Joanne Holden, Frederick J. Lee, Dominic E. Dwyer, Benjamin R. Bavinton, Andrew E. Grulich, Anthony D. Kelleher, and on behalf of the NSW HIV Prevention Partnership Project. 2020. "Increased HIV Subtype Diversity Reflecting Demographic Changes in the HIV Epidemic in New South Wales, Australia" Viruses 12, no. 12: 1402. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12121402

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