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Open AccessArticle

Occurrence and Molecular Phylogeny of Honey Bee Viruses in Vespids

by Sa Yang 1,2,†, Philippe Gayral 3,†, Hongxia Zhao 4,†, Yaojun Wu 5,†, Xuejian Jiang 5,†, Yanyan Wu 1,2, Diane Bigot 3,‡, Xinling Wang 1,2, Dahe Yang 1,2, Elisabeth A. Herniou 3, Shuai Deng 1,2, Fei Li 1,2, Qingyun Diao 1,2, Eric Darrouzet 3,*,† and Chunsheng Hou 1,2,*,†
Institute of Apicultural Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
Key Laboratory of Pollinating Insect Biology, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100093, China
Institut de Recherche sur la Biologie de l’Insecte, UMR 7261, CNRS—Université de Tours, F-37200 Tours, France
Guangdong Key Laboratory of Animal Conservation and Resource Utilization, Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization, Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, Guangzhou 510260, China
Institute of Forestry Protection, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Forestry Research Institute, Nanning 530002, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Present address: General Zoology, Institute for Biology, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Hoher Weg 8, 06120 Halle (Saale), Germany.
Viruses 2020, 12(1), 6;
Received: 21 November 2019 / Revised: 15 December 2019 / Accepted: 16 December 2019 / Published: 19 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Viruses and Pest Management)
Since the discovery that honey bee viruses play a role in colony decline, researchers have made major breakthroughs in understanding viral pathology and infection processes in honey bees. Work on virus transmission patterns and virus vectors, such as the mite Varroa destructor, has prompted intense efforts to manage honey bee health. However, little is known about the occurrence of honey bee viruses in bee predators, such as vespids. In this study, we characterized the occurrence of 11 honey bee viruses in five vespid species and one wasp from four provinces in China and two vespid species from four locations in France. The results showed that all the species from China carried certain honey bee viruses, notably Apis mellifera filamentous virus (AmFV), Deformed wing virus (DWV), and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV); furthermore, in some vespid colonies, more than three different viruses were identified. In France, DWV was the most common virus; Sacbrood virus (SBV) and Black queen cell virus (BQCV) were observed in one and two samples, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of IAPV and BQCV sequences indicated that most of the IAPV sequences belonged to a single group, while the BQCV sequences belonged to several groups. Additionally, our study is the first to detect Lake Sinai virus (LSV) in a hornet from China. Our findings can guide further research into the origin and transmission of honey bee viruses in Vespidae, a taxon of ecological, and potentially epidemiological, relevance. View Full-Text
Keywords: honeybee viruses; hornets; AmFV; IAPV; DWV honeybee viruses; hornets; AmFV; IAPV; DWV
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Yang, S.; Gayral, P.; Zhao, H.; Wu, Y.; Jiang, X.; Wu, Y.; Bigot, D.; Wang, X.; Yang, D.; Herniou, E.A.; Deng, S.; Li, F.; Diao, Q.; Darrouzet, E.; Hou, C. Occurrence and Molecular Phylogeny of Honey Bee Viruses in Vespids. Viruses 2020, 12, 6.

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