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Virus Shedding of Avian Influenza in Poultry: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1
Department of Virology, Wageningen Bioveterinary Research (WBVR), P.O. Box 65, 8200 AB Lelystad, The Netherlands
2
Department of Bacteriology and Epidemiology, WBVR, P.O. Box 65, 8200 AB Lelystad, The Netherlands
3
Quantitative Veterinary Epidemiology, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 338, 6700AH Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Those authors contributed equally to this work.
Present address: Netherlands Veterinary Medicines Institute (SDa), Yalelaan 114, 3584 CM Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 812; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090812
Received: 18 July 2019 / Revised: 14 August 2019 / Accepted: 21 August 2019 / Published: 2 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Understanding virus shedding patterns of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry is important for understanding host-pathogen interactions and developing effective control strategies. Many AIV strains were studied in challenge experiments in poultry, but no study has combined data from those studies to identify general AIV shedding patterns. These systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to summarize qualitative and quantitative information on virus shedding levels and duration for different AIV strains in experimentally infected poultry species. Methods were designed based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Four electronic databases were used to collect literature. A total of 1155 abstract were screened, with 117 studies selected for the qualitative analysis and 71 studies for the meta-analysis. A large heterogeneity in experimental methods was observed and the quantitative analysis showed that experimental variables such as species, virus origin, age, inoculation route and dose, affect virus shedding (mean, peak and duration) for highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV), low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) or both. In conclusion, this study highlights the need to standardize experimental procedures, it provides a comprehensive summary of the shedding patterns of AIV strains by infected poultry and identifies the variables that influence the level and duration of AIV shedding. View Full-Text
Keywords: avian influenza; virus shedding; poultry; systematic review; meta-analysis avian influenza; virus shedding; poultry; systematic review; meta-analysis
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Germeraad, E.A.; Sanders, P.; Hagenaars, T.J.; de Jong, M.C.; Beerens, N.; Gonzales, J.L. Virus Shedding of Avian Influenza in Poultry: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Viruses 2019, 11, 812.

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