Next Article in Journal
MiDRMpol: A High-Throughput Multiplexed Amplicon Sequencing Workflow to Quantify HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations against Protease, Reverse Transcriptase, and Integrase Inhibitors
Next Article in Special Issue
The Conserved Tyr176/Leu177 Motif in the α-Helix 9 of the Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Capsid Protein Is Critical for Gag Particle Assembly
Previous Article in Journal
Intestinal HAdV Infection: Tissue Specificity, Persistence, and Implications for Antiviral Therapy
Previous Article in Special Issue
Serological Screening for Coronavirus Infections in Cats
Open AccessArticle

Immunopathologic Effects of Prednisolone and Cyclosporine A on Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Replication and Persistence

1
Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
2
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
3
Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 805; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090805
Received: 31 July 2019 / Revised: 22 August 2019 / Accepted: 27 August 2019 / Published: 30 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feline Viruses and Viral Diseases)
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) induces opportunistic disease in chronically infected cats, and both prednisolone and cyclosporine A (CsA) are clinically used to treat complications such as lymphoma and stomatitis. However, the impact of these compounds on FIV infection are still unknown and understanding immunomodulatory effects on FIV replication and persistence is critical to guide safe and effective therapies. To determine the immunologic and virologic effects of prednisolone and CsA during FIV infection, FIV-positive cats were administered immunosuppressive doses of prednisolone (2 mg/kg) or CsA (5 mg/kg). Both prednisolone and CsA induced acute and transient increases in FIV DNA and RNA loads as detected by quantitative PCR. Changes in the proportion of lymphocyte immunophenotypes were also observed between FIV-infected and naïve cats treated with CsA and prednisolone, and both treatments caused acute increases in CD4+ lymphocytes that correlated with increased FIV RNA. CsA and prednisolone also produced alterations in cytokine expression that favored a shift toward a Th2 response. Pre-treatment with CsA slightly enhanced the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy but did not enhance clearance of FIV. Results highlight the potential for drug-induced perturbation of FIV infection and underscore the need for more information regarding immunopathologic consequences of therapeutic agents on concurrent viral infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: feline immunodeficiency virus; prednisolone; cyclosporine A; opportunistic disease; therapy; immunopathology; human immunodeficiency virus feline immunodeficiency virus; prednisolone; cyclosporine A; opportunistic disease; therapy; immunopathology; human immunodeficiency virus
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Miller, C.; Powers, J.; Musselman, E.; Mackie, R.; Elder, J.; VandeWoude, S. Immunopathologic Effects of Prednisolone and Cyclosporine A on Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Replication and Persistence. Viruses 2019, 11, 805.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop