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Reliable and Standardized Animal Models to Study the Pathogenesis of Bluetongue and Schmallenberg Viruses in Ruminant Natural Host Species with Special Emphasis on Placental Crossing

1
CARE-FEPEX experimental station, Fundamental and Applied Research for Animals & Health (FARAH) Center, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liege, 4000 Liege, Belgium
2
Research Unit in Epidemiology and Risk Analysis Applied to Veterinary Sciences (UREAR-ULg), Fundamental and Applied Research for Animals & Health (FARAH) Center, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liege, 4000 Liege, Belgium
3
Veterinary Virology and Animal Viral Diseases, Fundamental and Applied Research for Animals & Health (FARAH) Center, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liege, 4000 Liege, Belgium
4
Infectious Diseases in Animals, Exotic and Particular Diseases, Sciensano, 1180 Brussels, Belgium
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(8), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11080753
Received: 27 May 2019 / Revised: 19 July 2019 / Accepted: 13 August 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus-Vector-Host Interactions of Culicoides-Borne Diseases)
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Abstract

Starting in 2006, bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV8) was responsible for a major epizootic in Western and Northern Europe. The magnitude and spread of the disease were surprisingly high and the control of BTV improved significantly with the marketing of BTV8 inactivated vaccines in 2008. During late summer of 2011, a first cluster of reduced milk yield, fever, and diarrhoea was reported in the Netherlands. Congenital malformations appeared in March 2012 and Schmallenberg virus (SBV) was identified, becoming one of the very few orthobunyaviruses distributed in Europe. At the start of both epizootics, little was known about the pathogenesis and epidemiology of these viruses in the European context and most assumptions were extrapolated based on other related viruses and/or other regions of the World. Standardized and repeatable models potentially mimicking clinical signs observed in the field are required to study the pathogenesis of these infections, and to clarify their ability to cross the placental barrier. This review presents some of the latest experimental designs for infectious disease challenges with BTV or SBV. Infectious doses, routes of infection, inoculum preparation, and origin are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the placental crossing associated with these two viruses. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bluetongue; Schmallenberg; Culicoides; vector-borne disease; experimental challenge; infection; arboviruses Bluetongue; Schmallenberg; Culicoides; vector-borne disease; experimental challenge; infection; arboviruses
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Martinelle, L.; Dal Pozzo, F.; Thiry, E.; De Clercq, K.; Saegerman, C. Reliable and Standardized Animal Models to Study the Pathogenesis of Bluetongue and Schmallenberg Viruses in Ruminant Natural Host Species with Special Emphasis on Placental Crossing. Viruses 2019, 11, 753.

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