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Open AccessArticle

Field Evaluation of Deltamethrin and Ivermectin Applications to Cattle on Culicoides Host-Alighting, Blood-Feeding, and Emergence

1
Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX, Northern Ireland, UK
2
Ulster Farmers’ Union, 475 Antrim Road, Belfast BT15 3DA, Northern Ireland, UK
3
Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Large Park, Hillsborough BT26 6DR, Northern Ireland, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(8), 731; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11080731
Received: 2 July 2019 / Revised: 30 July 2019 / Accepted: 2 August 2019 / Published: 8 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virus-Vector-Host Interactions of Culicoides-Borne Diseases)
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Abstract

The impact of topical applications of deltamethrin and ivermectin to cattle on Culicoides spp. landing and blood-feeding was studied in this work using sticky traps mounted on Friesian heifers’ backs. There was no effect of the insecticides on total numbers of Culicoides trapped or the proportion engorged. Deltamethrin and ivermectin treatment did not prevent blood-feeding on these animals. Deltamethrin did result in significant Culicoides mortality as evidenced by the numbers of dead midges combed from heifers’ upper flanks. The proximity of engorged midges on traps to dead midges in the hair suggests that blood-feeding took place despite midges receiving an ultimately lethal dose of deltamethrin. Ivermectin application resulted in a smaller proportion of nulliparous than parous females caught. There was no significant effect of ivermectin on the numbers of Culicoides that emerged from dung samples (but p was small at 0.095 for the Obsoletus group Culicoides). In cases of suspect animal imports, pour-on or spray applications of deltamethrin could reduce the risk of onward transmission of bluetongue virus. View Full-Text
Keywords: Culicoides; bluetongue; deltamethrin; ivermectin; sticky trapping; onward transmission Culicoides; bluetongue; deltamethrin; ivermectin; sticky trapping; onward transmission
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Murchie, A.K.; Thompson, G.M.; Clawson, S.; Brown, A.; Gordon, A.W.; Jess, S. Field Evaluation of Deltamethrin and Ivermectin Applications to Cattle on Culicoides Host-Alighting, Blood-Feeding, and Emergence. Viruses 2019, 11, 731.

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