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Open AccessArticle

Discovery of Four Novel Viruses Associated with Flower Yellowing Disease of Green Sichuan Pepper (Zanthoxylum armatum) by Virome Analysis

by 1,2,*,†, 1,2,†, 1,2, 1,2, 3, 3, 3, 4 and 1,2,*
1
National Citrus Engineering Research Center, Citrus Research Institute, Southwest University, Chongqing 400712, China
2
Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
3
Chongqing Agricultural Technology Extension Station, Chongqing 401121, China
4
USDA-ARS, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Viruses 2019, 11(8), 696; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11080696
Received: 17 June 2019 / Revised: 28 July 2019 / Accepted: 28 July 2019 / Published: 31 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viromics: Approaches, Advances, and Applications)
An emerging virus-like flower yellowing disease (FYD) of green Sichuan pepper (Zanthoxylum armatum v. novemfolius) has been recently reported. Four new RNA viruses were discovered in the FYD-affected plant by the virome analysis using high-throughput sequencing of transcriptome and small RNAs. The complete genomes were determined, and based on the sequence and phylogenetic analysis, they are considered to be new members of the genera Nepovirus (Secoviridae), Idaeovirus (unassigned), Enamovirus (Luteoviridae), and Nucleorhabdovirus (Rhabdoviridae), respectively. Therefore, the tentative names corresponding to these viruses are green Sichuan pepper-nepovirus (GSPNeV), -idaeovirus (GSPIV), -enamovirus (GSPEV), and -nucleorhabdovirus (GSPNuV). The viral population analysis showed that GSPNeV and GSPIV were dominant in the virome. The small RNA profiles of these viruses are in accordance with the typical virus-plant interaction model for Arabidopsis thaliana. Rapid and sensitive RT-PCR assays were developed for viral detection, and used to access the geographical distributions. The results revealed a correlation between GSPNeV and the FYD. The viruses pose potential threats to the normal production of green Sichuan pepper in the affected areas due to their natural transmission and wide spread in fields. Collectively, our results provide useful information regarding taxonomy, transmission and pathogenicity of the viruses as well as management of the FYD. View Full-Text
Keywords: RNA viruses; nepovirus; idaeovirus; enamovirus; nucleorhabdovirus; high-throughput sequencing; transcriptome; small RNA; RNA silencing; RT-PCR RNA viruses; nepovirus; idaeovirus; enamovirus; nucleorhabdovirus; high-throughput sequencing; transcriptome; small RNA; RNA silencing; RT-PCR
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cao, M.; Zhang, S.; Li, M.; Liu, Y.; Dong, P.; Li, S.; Kuang, M.; Li, R.; Zhou, Y. Discovery of Four Novel Viruses Associated with Flower Yellowing Disease of Green Sichuan Pepper (Zanthoxylum armatum) by Virome Analysis. Viruses 2019, 11, 696.

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