Chicken gastrointestinal tract is an important site of immune cell development that not only regulates gut microbiota but also maintains extra-intestinal immunity. Recent studies have emphasized the important roles of gut microbiota in shaping immunity against viral diseases in chicken. Microbial diversity and its integrity are the key elements for deriving immunity against invading viral pathogens. Commensal bacteria provide protection against pathogens through direct competition and by the production of antibodies and activation of different cytokines to modulate innate and adaptive immune responses. There are few economically important viral diseases of chicken that perturb the intestinal microbiota diversity. Disruption of microbial homeostasis (dysbiosis) associates with a variety of pathological states, which facilitate the establishment of acute viral infections in chickens. In this review, we summarize the calibrated interactions among the microbiota mediated immune modulation through the production of different interferons (IFNs) ILs, and virus-specific IgA and IgG, and their impact on the severity of viral infections in chickens. Here, it also shows that acute viral infection diminishes commensal bacteria such as Lactobacillus
, Firmicutes, and Blautia
spp. populations and enhances the colonization of pathobionts, including E. coli
, and Clostridial
spp., in infected chickens.
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