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Current Findings on Gut Microbiota Mediated Immune Modulation against Viral Diseases in Chicken

1
Natural Medicine Research Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China
2
Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and food Innovation, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Those authors contribute equally to the work.
Viruses 2019, 11(8), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11080681
Received: 18 June 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 25 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Evasion or Suppression of Host Immunity)
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Abstract

Chicken gastrointestinal tract is an important site of immune cell development that not only regulates gut microbiota but also maintains extra-intestinal immunity. Recent studies have emphasized the important roles of gut microbiota in shaping immunity against viral diseases in chicken. Microbial diversity and its integrity are the key elements for deriving immunity against invading viral pathogens. Commensal bacteria provide protection against pathogens through direct competition and by the production of antibodies and activation of different cytokines to modulate innate and adaptive immune responses. There are few economically important viral diseases of chicken that perturb the intestinal microbiota diversity. Disruption of microbial homeostasis (dysbiosis) associates with a variety of pathological states, which facilitate the establishment of acute viral infections in chickens. In this review, we summarize the calibrated interactions among the microbiota mediated immune modulation through the production of different interferons (IFNs) ILs, and virus-specific IgA and IgG, and their impact on the severity of viral infections in chickens. Here, it also shows that acute viral infection diminishes commensal bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Firmicutes, and Blautia spp. populations and enhances the colonization of pathobionts, including E. coli, Shigella, and Clostridial spp., in infected chickens. View Full-Text
Keywords: chicken; gut-microbiota; commensal; pathobionts; Lactobacillus; Bifidobacterium; E. coli; Shigella chicken; gut-microbiota; commensal; pathobionts; Lactobacillus; Bifidobacterium; E. coli; Shigella
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Abaidullah, M.; Peng, S.; Kamran, M.; Song, X.; Yin, Z. Current Findings on Gut Microbiota Mediated Immune Modulation against Viral Diseases in Chicken. Viruses 2019, 11, 681.

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