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Current Understanding of Human Enterovirus D68

Cancer Institute (Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Intervention, China National Ministry of Education), School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009, Zhejiang, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(6), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11060490
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 29 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enteroviruses)
Human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68), a member of the species Enterovirus D of the Picornaviridae family, was first isolated in 1962 in the United States. EV-D68 infection was only infrequently reported until an outbreak occurred in 2014 in the US; since then, it has continued to increase worldwide. EV-D68 infection leads to severe respiratory illness and has recently been reported to be linked to the development of the neurogenic disease known as acute flaccid myelitis (AFM), mostly in children, seriously endangering public health. Hitherto, treatment options for EV-D68 infections were limited to supportive care, and as yet there are no approved, specific antiviral drugs or vaccines. Research on EV-D68 has mainly focused on its epidemiology, and its virologic characteristics and pathogenesis still need to be further explored. Here, we provide an overview of current research on EV-D68, including the genotypes and genetic characteristics of recent epidemics, the mechanism of infection and virus–host interactions, and its relationship to acute flaccid myelitis (AFM), in order to broaden our understanding of the biological features of EV-D68 and provide a basis for the development of effective antiviral agents. View Full-Text
Keywords: Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68); acute flaccid myelitis (AFM); immune antagonism; infection mechanism; genomic characteristics; infection mechanism Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68); acute flaccid myelitis (AFM); immune antagonism; infection mechanism; genomic characteristics; infection mechanism
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Sun, J.; Hu, X.-Y.; Yu, X.-F. Current Understanding of Human Enterovirus D68. Viruses 2019, 11, 490.

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