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Pathogenesis of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in BALB/c Mice Differs Between Intratracheal and Intranasal Inoculation

1
Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), 3721 MA Bilthoven, The Netherlands
2
Section Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboudumc, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands
3
Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases, Radboudumc, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(6), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11060508
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 28 May 2019 / Accepted: 30 May 2019 / Published: 3 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower respiratory tract disease requiring hospitalization in infants. There are no market-approved vaccines or antiviral agents available, but a growing number of vaccines and therapeutics are in (pre)clinical stages of development. Reliable animal models are crucial to evaluate new vaccine concepts, but in vivo RSV research is hampered by the lack of well-characterized animal models that faithfully mimic the pathogenesis of RSV infection in humans. Mice are frequently used in RSV infection and vaccination studies. However, differences in the use of mouse strains, RSV subtypes, and methodology often lead to divergent study outcomes. To our knowledge, a comparison between different RSV inoculation methods in mice has not been described in the literature, even though multiple methods are being used across different studies. In this study, we evaluated various pathological and immunological parameters in BALB/c mice after intratracheal or intranasal inoculation with RSV-A2. Our study reveals that intranasal inoculation induces robust pathology and inflammation, whereas this is not the case for intratracheal inoculation. As immunopathology is an important characteristic of RSV disease in infants, these data suggest that in mice intranasal inoculation is a more appropriate method to study RSV infection than intratracheal inoculation. These findings will contribute to the rational experimental design of future in vivo RSV experiments. View Full-Text
Keywords: RSV; animal model; pathology; anesthesia; inoculation method; inflammation RSV; animal model; pathology; anesthesia; inoculation method; inflammation
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van Erp, E.A.; Lakerveld, A.J.; Mulder, H.L.; Luytjes, W.; Ferwerda, G.; van Kasteren, P.B. Pathogenesis of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in BALB/c Mice Differs Between Intratracheal and Intranasal Inoculation. Viruses 2019, 11, 508.

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