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Open AccessReview

The Avocado Sunblotch Viroid: An Invisible Foe of Avocado

Departamento de Investigación Aplicada-Driscolls, Libramiento Sur #1620, Jacona 59833, Michoacán, Mexico
Postgrado en Fitosanidad-Fitopatología, Colegio de Postgraduados, Km. 36.5, Montecillo, Texcoco 56230, Estado de México, Mexico
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología-Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Álvaro Obregón #64, San Luis Potosí 78000, San Luis Potosí, Mexico
Departamento de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas-Fitopatología, Universidad Autónoma de Occidente UR Los Mochis, Boulevard Macario Gaxiola, Los Mochis 81223, Sinaloa, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(6), 491;
Received: 1 May 2019 / Revised: 23 May 2019 / Accepted: 25 May 2019 / Published: 29 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viroid-2018: International Conference on Viroids and Viroid-Like RNAs)
This review collects information about the history of avocado and the economically important disease, avocado sunblotch, caused by the avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd). Sunblotch symptoms are variable, but the most common in fruits are irregular sunken areas of white, yellow, or reddish color. On severely affected fruits, the sunken areas may become necrotic. ASBVd (type species Avocado sunblotch viroid, family Avsunviroidae) replicates and accumulates in the chloroplast, and it is the smallest plant pathogen. This pathogen is a circular single-stranded RNA of 246–251 nucleotides. ASBVd has a restricted host range and only few plant species of the family Lauraceae have been confirmed experimentally as additional hosts. The most reliable method to detect ASBVd in the field is to identify symptomatic fruits, complemented in the laboratory with reliable and sensitive molecular techniques to identify infected but asymptomatic trees. This pathogen is widely distributed in most avocado-producing areas and causes significant reductions in yield and fruit quality. Infected asymptomatic trees play an important role in the epidemiology of this disease, and avocado nurseries need to be certified to ensure they provide pathogen-free avocado material. Although there is no cure for infected trees, sanitation practices may have a significant impact on avoiding the spread of this pathogen. View Full-Text
Keywords: avocado; Persea americana; avocado sunblotch viroid avocado; Persea americana; avocado sunblotch viroid
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Saucedo Carabez, J.R.; Téliz Ortiz, D.; Vallejo Pérez, M.R.; Beltrán Peña, H. The Avocado Sunblotch Viroid: An Invisible Foe of Avocado. Viruses 2019, 11, 491.

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