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Review

Prion and Prion-Like Protein Strains: Deciphering the Molecular Basis of Heterogeneity in Neurodegeneration

1
Laboratory of Prion Biology, Department of Neuroscience, Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA), 34136 Trieste, Italy
2
Clinical Unit of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Health Sciences, University Hospital and Health Services of Trieste, University of Trieste, 34149 Trieste, Italy
3
ELETTRA Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(3), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11030261
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 10 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deciphering the Molecular Targets of Prion and Prion-Like Strains)
Increasing evidence suggests that neurodegenerative disorders share a common pathogenic feature: the presence of deposits of misfolded proteins with altered physicochemical properties in the Central Nervous System. Despite a lack of infectivity, experimental data show that the replication and propagation of neurodegenerative disease-related proteins including amyloid-β (Aβ), tau, α-synuclein and the transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) share a similar pathological mechanism with prions. These observations have led to the terminology of “prion-like” to distinguish between conditions with noninfectious characteristics but similarities with the prion replication and propagation process. Prions are considered to adapt their conformation to changes in the context of the environment of replication. This process is known as either prion selection or adaptation, where a distinct conformer present in the initial prion population with higher propensity to propagate in the new environment is able to prevail over the others during the replication process. In the last years, many studies have shown that prion-like proteins share not only the prion replication paradigm but also the specific ability to aggregate in different conformations, i.e., strains, with relevant clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic implications. This review focuses on the molecular basis of the strain phenomenon in prion and prion-like proteins. View Full-Text
Keywords: prion; prion-like proteins; strains; neurodegeneration prion; prion-like proteins; strains; neurodegeneration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Scialò, C.; De Cecco, E.; Manganotti, P.; Legname, G. Prion and Prion-Like Protein Strains: Deciphering the Molecular Basis of Heterogeneity in Neurodegeneration. Viruses 2019, 11, 261. https://doi.org/10.3390/v11030261

AMA Style

Scialò C, De Cecco E, Manganotti P, Legname G. Prion and Prion-Like Protein Strains: Deciphering the Molecular Basis of Heterogeneity in Neurodegeneration. Viruses. 2019; 11(3):261. https://doi.org/10.3390/v11030261

Chicago/Turabian Style

Scialò, Carlo, Elena De Cecco, Paolo Manganotti, and Giuseppe Legname. 2019. "Prion and Prion-Like Protein Strains: Deciphering the Molecular Basis of Heterogeneity in Neurodegeneration" Viruses 11, no. 3: 261. https://doi.org/10.3390/v11030261

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