Enhanced Autophagy Contributes to Reduced Viral Infection in Black Flying Fox Cells
AbstractBats are increasingly implicated as hosts of highly pathogenic viruses. The underlying virus–host interactions and cellular mechanisms that promote co-existence remain ill-defined, but physiological traits such as flight and longevity are proposed to drive these adaptations. Autophagy is a cellular homeostatic process that regulates ageing, metabolism, and intrinsic immune defense. We quantified basal and stimulated autophagic responses in black flying fox cells, and demonstrated that although black flying fox cells are susceptible to Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) infection, viral replication is dampened in these bat cells. Black flying fox cells tolerated prolonged ABLV infection with less cell death relative to comparable human cells, suggesting post-entry mechanisms interference with virus replication. An elevated basal autophagic level was observed and autophagy was induced in response to high virus doses. Pharmacological stimulation of the autophagy pathway reduced virus replication, indicating autophagy acts as an anti-viral mechanism. Enhancement of basal and virus-induced autophagy in bat cells connects related reports that long-lived species possess homeostatic processes that dampen oxidative stress and macromolecule damage. Exemplifying the potential that evolved cellular homeostatic adaptations like autophagy may secondarily act as anti-viral mechanisms, enabling bats to serve as natural hosts to an assortment of pathogenic viruses. Furthermore, our data suggest autophagy-inducing drugs may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for combating lyssavirus infection. View Full-Text
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Laing, E.D.; Sterling, S.L.; Weir, D.L.; Beauregard, C.R.; Smith, I.L.; Larsen, S.E.; Wang, L.-F.; Snow, A.L.; Schaefer, B.C.; Broder, C.C. Enhanced Autophagy Contributes to Reduced Viral Infection in Black Flying Fox Cells. Viruses 2019, 11, 260.
Laing ED, Sterling SL, Weir DL, Beauregard CR, Smith IL, Larsen SE, Wang L-F, Snow AL, Schaefer BC, Broder CC. Enhanced Autophagy Contributes to Reduced Viral Infection in Black Flying Fox Cells. Viruses. 2019; 11(3):260.Chicago/Turabian Style
Laing, Eric D.; Sterling, Spencer L.; Weir, Dawn L.; Beauregard, Chelsi R.; Smith, Ina L.; Larsen, Sasha E.; Wang, Lin-Fa; Snow, Andrew L.; Schaefer, Brian C.; Broder, Christopher C. 2019. "Enhanced Autophagy Contributes to Reduced Viral Infection in Black Flying Fox Cells." Viruses 11, no. 3: 260.
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