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Open AccessArticle

Diversity and Evolution of Viral Pathogen Community in Cave Nectar Bats (Eonycteris spelaea)

1
Programme in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore 169857, Singapore
2
NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119077, Singapore
3
Bioinformatics Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore 138671, Singapore
4
Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117558, Singapore
5
SingHealth Duke-NUS Global Health Institute, SingHealth Duke-NUS Academic Medical Centre, Singapore 168753, Singapore
6
Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(3), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11030250
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 7 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and Bats 2019)
Bats are unique mammals, exhibit distinctive life history traits and have unique immunological approaches to suppression of viral diseases upon infection. High-throughput next-generation sequencing has been used in characterizing the virome of different bat species. The cave nectar bat, Eonycteris spelaea, has a broad geographical range across Southeast Asia, India and southern China, however, little is known about their involvement in virus transmission. Here we investigate the diversity and abundance of viral communities from a colony of Eonycteris spelaea residing in Singapore. Our results detected 47 and 22 different virus families from bat fecal and urine samples, respectively. Among these, we identify a large number of virus families including Adenoviridae, Flaviviridae, Reoviridae, Papillomaviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Parvoviridae, Picornaviridae, and Polyomaviridae. In most cases, viral sequences from Eonycteris spelaea are genetically related to a group of bat viruses from other bat genera (e.g., Eidolon, Miniopterus, Rhinolophus and Rousettus). The results of this study improve our knowledge of the host range, spread and evolution of several important viral pathogens. More significantly, our findings provide a baseline to study the temporal patterns of virus shedding and how they correlate with bat phenological trends. View Full-Text
Keywords: Metaviromics; Southeast Asia; adenovirus; bunyavirus; flavivirus; herpesvirus; papillomavirus; paramyxovirus; parvovirus; picornavirus; polyomavirus; poxvirus; reovirus; rotavirus Metaviromics; Southeast Asia; adenovirus; bunyavirus; flavivirus; herpesvirus; papillomavirus; paramyxovirus; parvovirus; picornavirus; polyomavirus; poxvirus; reovirus; rotavirus
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Mendenhall, I.H.; Wen, D.L.H.; Jayakumar, J.; Gunalan, V.; Wang, L.; Mauer-Stroh, S.; Su, Y.C.; Smith, G.J. Diversity and Evolution of Viral Pathogen Community in Cave Nectar Bats (Eonycteris spelaea). Viruses 2019, 11, 250.

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