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Viruses 2019, 11(2), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020095

Metagenomic Characterization of the Viral Community of the South Scotia Ridge

1
College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China
2
Key Lab of Polar Oceanography and Global Ocean Change, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China
3
Institute of Evolution and Marine Biodiversity, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China
4
Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity and Evolution of Phage Genomes)
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Abstract

Viruses are the most abundant biological entities in aquatic ecosystems and harbor an enormous amount of genetic diversity. Whereas their influence on marine ecosystems is widely acknowledged, current information about their diversity remains limited. We conducted a viral metagenomic analysis of water samples collected during the austral summer of 2016 from the South Scotia Ridge (SSR), near the Antarctic Peninsula. The taxonomic composition and diversity of the viral communities were investigated, and a functional assessment of the sequences was performed. Phylotypic analysis showed that most viruses belonged to the order Caudovirales, especially the family Podoviridae (41.92–48.7%), which is similar to the situation in the Pacific Ocean. Functional analysis revealed a relatively high frequency of phage-associated and metabolism genes. Phylogenetic analyses of phage TerL and Capsid_NCLDV (nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses) marker genes indicated that many sequences associated with Caudovirales and NCLDV were novel and distinct from known phage genomes. High Phaeocystis globosa virus virophage (Pgvv) signatures were found and complete and partial Pgvv-like were obtained, which influence host–virus interactions. Our study expands existing knowledge of viral communities and their diversities from the Antarctic region and provides basic data for further exploring polar microbiomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: virus; South Scotia Ridge; viral community; diversity; Pgvv-like virus; South Scotia Ridge; viral community; diversity; Pgvv-like
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Yang, Q.; Gao, C.; Jiang, Y.; Wang, M.; Zhou, X.; Shao, H.; Gong, Z.; McMinn, A. Metagenomic Characterization of the Viral Community of the South Scotia Ridge. Viruses 2019, 11, 95.

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