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Viruses 2019, 11(2), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020093

Class A Scavenger Receptors Are Used by Frog Virus 3 During Its Cellular Entry

1
Department of Health Sciences, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON N2L 3C5, Canada
2
Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON N2L 3C5, Canada
3
Department of Biological Sciences, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 20 January 2019 / Published: 23 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CSV2018: The 2nd symposium of the Canadian Society for Virology (CSV))
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Abstract

Frog virus 3 (FV3) is the type species of the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae). FV3 and FV3-like viruses are globally distributed infectious agents with the capacity to replicate in three vertebrate classes (teleosts, amphibians, and reptiles). At the cellular level, FV3 and FV3-like viruses can infect cells from virtually all vertebrate classes. To date, the cellular receptors that are involved in the FV3 entry process are unknown. Class A scavenger receptors (SR-As) are a family of evolutionarily conserved cell-surface receptors that bind a wide range of chemically distinct polyanionic ligands and can function as cellular receptors for other DNA viruses, including vaccinia virus and herpes simplex virus. The present study aimed to determine whether SR-As are involved in FV3 cellular entry. By using well-defined SR-A competitive and non-competitive ligand-blocking assays and absolute qPCR, we demonstrated that the SR-A competitive ligands drastically reduced the quantities of cell-associated viral loads in frog cells. Moreover, inducing the expression of a human SR-AI in an SR-A null cell line significantly increased FV3–cell association. Together, our results indicate that SR-As are utilized by FV3 during the cellular entry process. View Full-Text
Keywords: frog virus 3; ranavirus; iridovirus; class A scavenger receptors; viral entry; tadpole; macrophage; Xenopus; Lithobates; SR-AI frog virus 3; ranavirus; iridovirus; class A scavenger receptors; viral entry; tadpole; macrophage; Xenopus; Lithobates; SR-AI
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Vo, N.T.K.; Guerreiro, M.; Yaparla, A.; Grayfer, L.; DeWitte-Orr, S.J. Class A Scavenger Receptors Are Used by Frog Virus 3 During Its Cellular Entry. Viruses 2019, 11, 93.

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