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Open AccessArticle

Host Resistance, Genomics and Population Dynamics in a Salmonella Enteritidis and Phage System

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Universidad de Los Andes, 111711 Bogotá, Colombia
2
Instituto René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, 21040-900 Belo Horizonte, Brazil
3
Instituto Tecnológico Vale, 66055-090 Belém, Brazil
4
Research Group for Genomic Epidemiology, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(2), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020188
Received: 22 December 2018 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity and Evolution of Phage Genomes)
Bacteriophages represent an alternative solution to control bacterial infections. When interacting, bacteria and phage can evolve, and this relationship is described as antagonistic coevolution, a pattern that does not fit all models. In this work, the model consisted of a microcosm of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and φSan23 phage. Samples were taken for 12 days every 48 h. Bacteria and phage samples were collected; and isolated bacteria from each time point were challenged against phages from previous, contemporary, and subsequent time points. The phage plaque tests, with the genomics analyses, showed a mutational asymmetry dynamic in favor of the bacteria instead of antagonistic coevolution. This is important for future phage-therapy applications, so we decided to explore the population dynamics of Salmonella under different conditions: pressure of one phage, a combination of phages, and phages plus an antibiotic. The data from cultures with single and multiple phages, and antibiotics, were used to create a mathematical model exploring population and resistance dynamics of Salmonella under these treatments, suggesting a nonlethal, growth-inhibiting antibiotic may decrease resistance to phage-therapy cocktails. These data provide a deep insight into bacterial dynamics under different conditions and serve as additional criteria to select phages and antibiotics for phage-therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: phage-therapy; Salmonella Enteritidis; bacteria-phage coevolution; antibiotics; bacterial resistance phage-therapy; Salmonella Enteritidis; bacteria-phage coevolution; antibiotics; bacterial resistance
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Holguín, A.V.; Cárdenas, P.; Prada-Peñaranda, C.; Rabelo Leite, L.; Buitrago, C.; Clavijo, V.; Oliveira, G.; Leekitcharoenphon, P.; Møller Aarestrup, F.; Vives, M.J. Host Resistance, Genomics and Population Dynamics in a Salmonella Enteritidis and Phage System. Viruses 2019, 11, 188.

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