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Human Norovirus: Experimental Models of Infection

Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(2), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020151
Received: 18 January 2019 / Revised: 6 February 2019 / Accepted: 7 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noroviruses)
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. HuNoV infections lead to substantial societal and economic burdens. There are currently no licensed vaccines or therapeutics for the prevention or treatment of HuNoVs. A lack of well-characterized in vitro and in vivo infection models has limited the development of HuNoV countermeasures. Experimental infection of human volunteers and the use of related viruses such as murine NoV have provided helpful insights into HuNoV biology and vaccine and therapeutic development. There remains a need for robust animal models and reverse genetic systems to further HuNoV research. This review summarizes available HuNoV animal models and reverse genetic systems, while providing insight into their usefulness for vaccine and therapeutic development. View Full-Text
Keywords: norovirus; human norovirus; animal models; reverse genetics; vaccine development norovirus; human norovirus; animal models; reverse genetics; vaccine development
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Todd, K.V.; Tripp, R.A. Human Norovirus: Experimental Models of Infection. Viruses 2019, 11, 151.

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