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Viruses 2019, 11(2), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020130

The Influence of Envelope C-Terminus Amino Acid Composition on the Ratio of Cell-Free to Cell-Cell Transmission for Bovine Foamy Virus

Key Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 12 November 2018 / Revised: 26 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 31 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spumaretroviruses)
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Abstract

Foamy viruses (FVs) have extensive cell tropism in vitro, special replication features, and no clinical pathogenicity in naturally or experimentally infected animals, which distinguish them from orthoretroviruses. Among FVs, bovine foamy virus (BFV) has undetectable or extremely low levels of cell-free transmission in the supernatants of infected cells and mainly spreads by cell-to-cell transmission, which deters its use as a gene transfer vector. Here, using an in vitro virus evolution system, we successfully isolated high-titer cell-free BFV strains from the original cell-to-cell transmissible BFV3026 strain and further constructed an infectious cell-free BFV clone called pBS-BFV-Z1. Following sequence alignment with a cell-associated clone pBS-BFV-B, we identified a number of changes in the genome of pBS-BFV-Z1. Extensive mutagenesis analysis revealed that the C-terminus of envelope protein, especially the K898 residue, controls BFV cell-free transmission by enhancing cell-free virus entry but not the virus release capacity. Taken together, our data show the genetic determinants that regulate cell-to-cell and cell-free transmission of BFV. View Full-Text
Keywords: bovine foamy virus; infectious clone; particle release; cell-free transmission bovine foamy virus; infectious clone; particle release; cell-free transmission
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Zhang, S.; Liu, X.; Liang, Z.; Bing, T.; Qiao, W.; Tan, J. The Influence of Envelope C-Terminus Amino Acid Composition on the Ratio of Cell-Free to Cell-Cell Transmission for Bovine Foamy Virus. Viruses 2019, 11, 130.

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