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Open AccessArticle

Ebola Virus Uptake into Polarized Cells from the Apical Surface

1
State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Center for Biosafety Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing, China
3
National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100101 Beijing, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1117; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121117
Received: 26 October 2019 / Revised: 26 November 2019 / Accepted: 30 November 2019 / Published: 2 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Ebolavirus, Marburgvirus, and Cuevavirus Research)
Ebola virus (EBOV) causes severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality rates. EBOV can infect many types of cells. During severe EBOV infection, polarized epithelial and endothelial cells are damaged, which promotes vascular instability and dysregulation. However, the mechanism causing these symptoms is largely unknown. Here, we studied virus infection in polarized Vero C1008 cells grown on semipermeable Transwell by using EGFP-labeled Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs). Our results showed that Ebola VLPs preferred to enter polarized Vero cells from the apical cell surface. Furthermore, we showed that the EBOV receptors TIM-1 and Axl were distributed apically, which could be responsible for mediating efficient apical viral entry. Macropinocytosis and intracellular receptor Niemann–Pick type C1 (NPC1) had no polarized distribution, although they played roles in virus entry. This study provides a new view of EBOV uptake and cell polarization, which facilitates a further understanding of EBOV infection and pathogenesis.
Keywords: Ebola virus; polarized cells; apical entry; TIM-1; Axl; Ebola virus; polarized cells; apical entry; TIM-1; Axl;
MDPI and ACS Style

Hu, M.; Wang, F.; Li, W.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X.-E.; Cui, Z. Ebola Virus Uptake into Polarized Cells from the Apical Surface. Viruses 2019, 11, 1117.

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