Next Article in Journal
Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome Transmission Risk in Brazil
Previous Article in Journal
The Rescue and Characterization of Recombinant, Microcephaly-Associated Zika Viruses as Single-Round Infectious Particles
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cross-Protection of Inactivated Rabies Vaccines for Veterinary Use against Bat Lyssaviruses Occurring in Europe
Open AccessArticle

Rabies Surveillance Identifies Potential Risk Corridors and Enables Management Evaluation

1
National Wildlife Research Center, United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
2
National Rabies Management Program, United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, Concord, NH 03301-8548, USA
3
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(11), 1006; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11111006
Received: 13 September 2019 / Revised: 12 October 2019 / Accepted: 29 October 2019 / Published: 31 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rabies Virus: Knowledge Gaps and Challenges to Elimination)
Intensive efforts are being made to eliminate the raccoon variant of rabies virus (RABV) from the eastern United States and Canada. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Wildlife Services National Rabies Management Program has implemented enhanced rabies surveillance (ERS) to improve case detection across the extent of the raccoon oral rabies vaccination (ORV) management area. We evaluated ERS and public health surveillance data from 2006 to 2017 in three northeastern USA states using a dynamic occupancy modeling approach. Our objectives were to examine potential risk corridors for RABV incursion from the U.S. into Canada, evaluate the effectiveness of ORV management strategies, and identify surveillance gaps. ORV management has resulted in a decrease in RABV cases over time within vaccination zones (from occupancy ( ψ ¯ ) of 0.60 standard error (SE) = 0.03 in the spring of 2006 to ψ ¯ of 0.33 SE = 0.10 in the spring 2017). RABV cases also reduced in the enzootic area (from ψ ¯ of 0.60 SE = 0.03 in the spring of 2006 to ψ ¯ of 0.45 SE = 0.05 in the spring 2017). Although RABV occurrence was related to habitat type, greater impacts were associated with ORV and trap–vaccinate–release (TVR) campaigns, in addition to seasonal and yearly trends. Reductions in RABV occupancy were more pronounced in areas treated with Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait (ONRAB) compared to RABORAL V-RG®. Our approach tracked changes in RABV occurrence across space and time, identified risk corridors for potential incursions into Canada, and highlighted surveillance gaps, while evaluating the impacts of management actions. Using this approach, we are able to provide guidance for future RABV management. View Full-Text
Keywords: dynamic occupancy; multi-method occupancy; ORV; rabies virus; raccoon; surveillance; wildlife disease; USA dynamic occupancy; multi-method occupancy; ORV; rabies virus; raccoon; surveillance; wildlife disease; USA
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Davis, A.J.; Nelson, K.M.; Kirby, J.D.; Wallace, R.; Ma, X.; Pepin, K.M.; Chipman, R.B.; Gilbert, A.T. Rabies Surveillance Identifies Potential Risk Corridors and Enables Management Evaluation. Viruses 2019, 11, 1006.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop