Next Article in Journal
KDELR2 Competes with Measles Virus Envelope Proteins for Cellular Chaperones Reducing Their Chaperone-Mediated Cell Surface Transport
Next Article in Special Issue
Localization of Frog Virus 3 Conserved Viral Proteins 88R, 91R, and 94L
Previous Article in Journal
Host and Viral Proteins Modulating Ebola and Marburg Virus Egress
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Pathogen Risk Analysis for Wild Amphibian Populations Following the First Report of a Ranavirus Outbreak in Farmed American Bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) from Northern Mexico

1
Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 3584 CL Utrecht, The Netherlands
2
Laboratorio de Genética y Evolución, Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras, Santiago 3425, Chile
3
Programa de Fisiología y Biofísica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380453, Chile
4
Wildlife and Laboratory Animals, Department of Ethology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City 045010, Mexico
5
C3-Complexity sciences Center, Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City 045010, Mexico
6
Department of Animal Ecology and Physiology, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands
7
Netherlands Centre of Expertise on Exotic Species, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands
8
Department of Pathology 04510, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City 045010, Mexico
9
Department of Aquaculture, Instituto Politécnico, Nacional-CIIDIR Unidad Sinaloa, Guasave Sinaloa 81101, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010026
Received: 4 October 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 24 December 2018 / Published: 3 January 2019
  |  
PDF [7414 KB, uploaded 3 January 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Ranaviruses are the second deadliest pathogens for amphibian populations throughout the world. Despite their wide distribution in America, these viruses have never been reported in Mexico, the country with the fifth highest amphibian diversity in the world. This paper is the first to address an outbreak of ranavirus in captive American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) from Sinaloa, Mexico. The farm experienced high mortality in an undetermined number of juveniles and sub-adult bullfrogs. Affected animals displayed clinical signs and gross lesions such as lethargy, edema, skin ulcers, and hemorrhages consistent with ranavirus infection. The main microscopic lesions included mild renal tubular necrosis and moderate congestion in several organs. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed scant infected hepatocytes and renal tubular epithelial cells. Phylogenetic analysis of five partial ranavirus genes showed that the causative agent clustered within the Frog virus 3 clade. Risk assessment with the Pandora+ protocol demonstrated a high risk for the pathogen to affect amphibians from neighboring regions (overall Pandora risk score: 0.619). Given the risk of American bullfrogs escaping and spreading the disease to wild amphibians, efforts should focus on implementing effective containment strategies and surveillance programs for ranavirus at facilities undertaking intensive farming of amphibians. View Full-Text
Keywords: amphibians; histopathology; immunohistochemistry; Mexico; outbreak; ranavirus; risk assessment amphibians; histopathology; immunohistochemistry; Mexico; outbreak; ranavirus; risk assessment
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Saucedo, B.; Serrano, J.M.; Jacinto-Maldonado, M.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Rocha García, A.A.; Méndez Bernal, A.; Gröne, A.; Van Beurden, S.J.; Escobedo-Bonilla, C.M. Pathogen Risk Analysis for Wild Amphibian Populations Following the First Report of a Ranavirus Outbreak in Farmed American Bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) from Northern Mexico. Viruses 2019, 11, 26.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top