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Viruses 2018, 10(6), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10060326

NS1 Antigenemia and Viraemia Load: Potential Markers of Progression to Dengue Fatal Outcome?

1
Viral Immunology Laboratory (LIV), Oswaldo Cruz Institute—FIOCRUZ, Avenida Brasil, 4365. Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro 21040-360, Brazil
2
Flavivirus Laboratory (LABFLA), Oswaldo Cruz Institute—FIOCRUZ, Avenida Brasil, 4365. Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro 21040-360, Brazil
3
Hematozoa Transmittors Mosquitoes Laboratory, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro 21040-360, Brazil
Those authors contributed equally to the work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 January 2018 / Revised: 22 February 2018 / Accepted: 1 March 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 6th Pan-American Dengue Research Network Meeting)
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Abstract

Dengue is a worldwide problem characterized by a multifactorial pathogenesis. Considering the viral components, it is known that high viremia or high levels of the secreted nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) may be associated with a more severe disease. We aimed to characterize the NS1 antigenemia and viremia in dengue fatal and non-fatal cases, as potential markers of progression to a fatal outcome. NS1 antigenemia and viremia were determined in Brazilian dengue fatal cases (n = 40) and non-fatal cases (n = 40), representative of the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes. Overall, the fatal cases presented higher NS1 levels and viremia. Moreover, the fatal cases from secondary infections showed significantly higher NS1 levels than the non-fatal ones. Here, irrespective of the disease outcome, DENV-1 cases presented higher NS1 levels than the other serotypes. However, DENV-2 and DENV-4 fatal cases had higher NS1 antigenemia than the non-fatal cases with the same serotype. The viremia in the fatal cases was higher than in the non-fatal ones, with DENV-3 and DENV-4 presenting higher viral loads. Viral components, such as NS1 and viral RNA, may be factors influencing the disease outcome. However, the host immune status, comorbidities, and access to adequate medical support cannot be ruled out as interfering in the disease outcome. View Full-Text
Keywords: dengue; fatal cases; NS1 antigenemia; viraemia load dengue; fatal cases; NS1 antigenemia; viraemia load
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Nunes, P.C.G.; Nogueira, R.M.R.; Heringer, M.; Chouin-Carneiro, T.; Damasceno dos Santos Rodrigues, C.; de Filippis, A.M.B.; Lima, M.R.Q.; dos Santos, F.B. NS1 Antigenemia and Viraemia Load: Potential Markers of Progression to Dengue Fatal Outcome? Viruses 2018, 10, 326.

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